An adaptive content based closer proximity pixel replacement algorithm for high density salt and pepper noise removal in images


An Adaptive Content based Closer Proximity Pixel Replacement algorithm for the removal of high density salt and pepper noise in images is proposed. The algorithm uses decision tree to identify and correct the pixels of the image is noisy or not. The algorithm finds Euclidean distance between the processed pixel and the number of non-noisy pixels inside the current processing kernel. The algorithm requires only two non-noisy pixels to be present in kernel for the algorithm to operate. The faulty pixels are replaced only by the median of pixels that occurs more frequently in the current processing kernel based on the Euclidean distance. The algorithm increases the window size by two when there are no non-noisy pixels in the current processing kernel. The proposed algorithm was compared with 16 standard and existing algorithms derived from recent literatures. Exhaustive experiments on standard database images suggest that the algorithm exhibit excellent noise suppression and good information preservation characteristics even at very high noise densities.

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Salt and pepper noise


Adaptive decision based kriging interpolation filter


Peak signal to noise ratio


Mean square error


Image enhancement factor


Error rate


Structural Similarity Index metric


Figure of merit


Standard median filter


Adaptive median filter


Center weighted filter


Alpha trimmed mean filter


Progressive switched median filter


Modified decision based median filter


Decision based median algorithm


Improved decision based median filter


Cascaded unsymmetrical trimmed mean filter


Cascaded unsymmetrical decision based midpoint filter


Modified decision based unsymmetrical trimmed median filter


Modified decision based unsymmetrical trimmed median filter with global mean


Adaptive Cardinal B Spline interpolation filter


Noise adaptive fuzzy switched median


Adaptive weighted mean filter


Cumulative probability blur detection metric


Normalized correlation coefficient


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Vasanth, K., Varatharajan, R. An adaptive content based closer proximity pixel replacement algorithm for high density salt and pepper noise removal in images. J Ambient Intell Human Comput (2020).

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  • Salt and pepper noise
  • Mode
  • Euclidean distance
  • Median