The localization of underwater sensors is the most crucial task in underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs). The sensors which are situated under the water sense information from the earth and detected information is transmitted to the observing station. Although the monitoring station receives the sensed information, the data is meaningless without knowing the exact position of the sensors. So, in UWSN, localization is the major issue to be resolved. The Range-Based Whale Optimization Algorithm (WOA) is introduced in this paper to discover this issue. To evaluate the valued location of the sensors, localization error is further reduced. The localization error is reduced by applying the WOA in this work. Reproduction results exhibit that presentation measurements of the planned methodology beats that of the current work as far as limitation mistake and restriction inclusion. Besides, the proposed scheme achieves better localization coverage, delivery ratio, delay and energy consumption than the existing algorithms.
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Shakila, R., Paramasivan, B. RETRACTED ARTICLE: An improved range based localization using Whale Optimization Algorithm in underwater wireless sensor network. J Ambient Intell Human Comput 12, 6479–6489 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12652-020-02263-w