I-DEEC: improved DEEC for blanket coverage in heterogeneous wireless sensor networks


Event critical applications demand blanket coverage. On the other hand, nodes closer to the base station are exploited as they have to spend additional energy in relaying data of far away nodes. This brings in the idea of implementing blanket coverage in heterogeneous wireless sensor networks. I-DEEC improvises distributed energy efficient clustering (DEEC) by deploying network nodes in two layers. Layer 1 strategically tessellate hexagons to deploy nodes as normal or super nodes based on distance from the base station, considering the high data requirement within hop distance around the base station. Layer 2 randomly deploys advanced nodes with condition that no two advanced nodes sense the same area. Further, it uses the sum of the ratio of node’s distance to the base station along with residual energy ratio to calculate the possibility of a node to be selected as a cluster head, followed by the selection of the optimal percentage high possibility nodes as cluster heads. I-DEEC provisions blanket coverage by extending the stability period by reducing the ratio between initial energy of different types of nodes. I-DEEC revamps DEEC protocol in terms of network lifetime, percentage area coverage, throughput, and residual energy.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4


  1. Abdollahzadeh S, Navimipour NJ (2016) Deployment strategies in the wireless sensor network: a comprehensive review. Comput Commun 91–92:1–16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comcom.2016.06.003

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Andersen T, Tirthapura S (2009) Wireless sensor deployment for 3d coverage with constraints. In: Proceedings of sixth international conference on networked sensing systems at Pittsburg Carnegie Mellon University

  3. Anuradha D, Srivatsa SK (2019) Energy effectual reconfigurable routing protocol (E2R2P) for cluster based underwater wireless sensor networks. J Ambient Intell Human Comput. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12652-019-01413-z

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Bhola J, Soni S, Cheema GK (2019) Genetic algorithm based optimized leach protocol for energy efficient wireless sensor networks. J Ambient Intell Human Comput. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12652-019-01382-3

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Chakrabarty K, Iyengar SS, Qi H, Cho E (2002) Grid coverage for surveillance and target location in distributed sensor network. IEEE Trans Comput 51:1448–53

    MathSciNet  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Chieh K, Liu BH, Tsai MJ (2011) The critical-square grid coverage problem in wireless sensor network is np-complete. Comput Netw 55:2209–2220. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comnet.2011.03.004

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Gupta P, Sharma AK (2019) Designing of energy efficient stable clustering protocols based on BFOA for WSNS. J Ambient Intell Human Comput 10(2):681–700

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Heinzelman W, Chandrakasan AP, Balakrishnan H (2002) An application specific protocol architecture for wireless microsensor networks. IEEE Trans Wirel Commun 1(4):660–670

  9. Kumar D (2014) Performance analysis of energy efficient clustering protocols for maximizing lifetime of wireless sensor networks. IET Wirel Sens Syst.http://dx.doi.org/iet-wss.2012.0150

  10. Li J, Mohapatra P (2005) An analytical model for the energy hole problem in many to one sensor networks. IEEE (0-7803-9152-7)

  11. Liu M, Cao J, Chen G, Wang X (2009) An energy aware routing protocol in wireless sensor networks. Sensors 9:445–462. https://doi.org/10.3390/s90100445

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Melissen JBM, Schuur PC (2000) Covering a rectangle with six and seven circles. Dicrete Appl Math 99:149–156

    MathSciNet  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Nurmela KJ, Ostergard PRJ (2000) Covering a square with up to 30 equal circles. HUT-TCS-A62 Espoo

  14. Priyadarshini RR, Sivakumar N (2019) Enhancing coverage and connectivity using energy prediction method in underwater acoustic wsn. J Ambient Intell Human Comput 1–10

  15. Qing L, Zhu Q, Wang M (2006) Design of distributed energy efficient clustering algorithm for heterogeneous wireless sensor networks. Comput Commun 29:2230–2237

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Rebai M, Berre ML, Snoussi H, Khoukhi L (2015) Sensor deployment optimization methods to achieve both coverage and connectivity in wireless sensor networks. Comput Oper Res. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cor.2014.11.002

  17. Sharma V, Patel RB, Bhadauria HS, Prasad D (2016) Deployment schemes in wireless sensor network to achieve blanket coverage in large scale open area: a review. Egypt Inform J 17:45–56. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eij.2015.08.003

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Singh S (2017) Energy efficient multilevel network model for heterogeneous wsns. Eng Sci Technol Int J 20(1):105–115

    Google Scholar 

  19. Singh S (2019) A proficient node deployment mechanism using adjustable sensing range in wireless sensor networks. Iran J Sci Technol Trans Electr Eng 43(1):191–199

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Singh S, Malik A (2017a) hetdeec: heterogeneous deec protocol for prolonging lifetime in wireless sensor networks. J Inf Optim Sci 38(5):699–720

    MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  21. Singh S, Malik A (2017b) hetsep: heterogeneous SEP protocol for increasing lifetime in wsns. J Inf Optim Sci 38(5):721–743

    MathSciNet  Google Scholar 

  22. Singh S, Malik A, Kumar R (2017) Energy efficient heterogeneous DEEC protocol for enhancing lifetime in wsns. Eng Sci Technol Int J 20(1):345–353

    Google Scholar 

  23. Smaragdakis G, Matta I, Bestavros A (2004) SEP: a stable election protocol for clustered heterogeneous wireless sensor networks. Boston University Computer Science Department, Tech. rep

  24. Srivastava V, Tripathi S, Singh K et al (2019) Energy efficient optimized rate based congestion control routing in wireless sensor network. J Ambient Intell Human Comput. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12652-019-01449-1

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Tarnai T, Gaspar Z (1995) Covering a square by equal circles. ElMath 50

  26. Wang CY, Hu CC, Tseng YC (2008) Efficient placement and dispatch of sensors in a wireless sensor network. IEEE Trans Mob Comput. https://doi.org/10.1109/TMC.2007.70708

  27. Wu X, Chen G, Das SK (2008) Avoiding energy holes in wireless sensor networks with nonuniform node distribution. IEEE Trans Parallel Distrib Syst. https://doi.org/10.1109/TPDS.2007.70770

  28. Zhao X, Xiong X, Sun Z, Zhang X, Sun Z (2019) An immune clone selection based power control strategy for alleviating energy hole problems in wireless sensor networks. J Ambient Intell Human Comput. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12652-019-01300-7

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Vibha Nehra.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Nehra, V., Sharma, A.K. & Tripathi, R.K. I-DEEC: improved DEEC for blanket coverage in heterogeneous wireless sensor networks. J Ambient Intell Human Comput 11, 3687–3698 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12652-019-01552-3

Download citation


  • Blanket coverage
  • Heterogeneous network
  • Stability period
  • Initial energy
  • Hexagon covering