Object coding based video authentication for privacy protection in immersive communication

  • Peng Zhang
  • Tony Thomas
  • Tao Zhuo
  • Wei Huang
  • Hanqiao Huang
Original Research
  • 150 Downloads

Abstract

Video immersive communication has become a new trend in human-interaction technologies by the information exchanging, which requires the object based coding to provide very low bit rate compression for transmission as well as to protect the privacy of the users. In addition, advanced content-based functionalities in ambient intelligence such as encoder/decoder selection and manipulation of specific objects in a video stream also need the support from object based coding. Unfortunately, due to a malicious entity of modification/replacement/removement of the individual foreground objects and background in the video, effective video authenticity protection is still challenging in some realistic cases. In this paper, we propose an object based coding authentication strategy based on a Chinese remainder theorem for video authenticity protection during transmission. With the watermark generation for single frame and content scalable video coding, we performed the proposed authenticity verification on both original video and sub-video. Based on the efficiency evaluation on video transmission, the proposed approach ensures an applicable authenticity between the foreground objects and their associated background for video immersive applications.

Keywords

Object based coding Authentication Privacy protection Watermark Immersive communication 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work is supported by the Grants 61301194, 61571362, 61363046, 61403182, 61601505 approved by the National Natural Science Foundation, China, and the National Research Foundation, Prime Minister’s Office, Singapore under its International Research Centre in Singapore Funding Initiative, and the Young Talented Scientist Grant 20153BCB23029 approved by the Jiangxi Provincial Department of Science and Technology.

References

  1. Atrey PK, Yan W-Q, Kankanhalli MS (2007) A scalable signature scheme for video authentication. Multimed Tools Appl (MTAP) 34(1):107–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barni M, Bartolini F, Checcacci N (2005) Watermarking of mpeg-4 video objects. IEEE Trans Multimed (T-MM) 7(1):23–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chang C-C, Lee J-S (2009) Robust t-out-of-n oblivious transfer mechanism based on crt. J Netw Comput Appl 32(1):226–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chien SY, Huang YW, Hsieh BY, Ma SY, Chen LG (2004) Fast video segmentation algorithm with shadow cancellation, global motion compensation, and adaptive threshold techniques. IEEE Trans Multimed (T-MM) 6(5):732–748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chiou GH, Chen WT (1989) Secure broadcasting using the secure lock. IEEE Trans Softw Eng (T-SE) 15(8):929–934CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ding C, Pei D, Salomaa A (1996) Chinese remainder theorem: applications in computing, coding, cryptography. World Scientific, SingaporeCrossRefMATHGoogle Scholar
  7. Ebrahimi T, Reusens E, Li W (1995) New trends in very low bitrate video coding. Proc IEEE 83(6):877–891CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gerken P (1994) Object-based analysis-synthesis coding of image sequences at very low bit rates. IEEE Trans Circ Syst Video Technol (T-CSVT) 4(3):228–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Grgić M, Zovko-Cihlar, B, Bauer S (1997) Coding of audio-visual objects. In: 39th international symposium electronics in marine-ELMAR” 97Google Scholar
  10. He D, Sun Q, Tian Q (2003) A robust object-based video authentication system. In: International conference on information technology: research and education. IEEE, New York, pp 253–254Google Scholar
  11. Hefeeda M, Mokhtarian K (2010) Authentication schemes for multimedia streams: quantitative analysis and comparison. ACM Trans Multimed Comput Commun Appl (TOMCCAP) 6(1):6Google Scholar
  12. Hu B, Ye W, Feng SL, Wang XL, Xie X (2006) Key distribution scheme based on two cryptosystems for hierarchical access control. In: 2006 8th international conference advanced communication technology, vol 3. IEEE, New York, p 6Google Scholar
  13. Iqbal R, Shirmohammadi S, El-Saddik A, Zhao J (2008) Compressed-domain video processing for adaptation, encryption, and authentication. IEEE MultiMed 15(2):38–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Li L, Huang W, Gu IY, Tian Q (2003) Foreground object detection from videos containing complex background. In: Proceedings of the eleventh ACM international conference on multimedia (ACMM MM). ACM, New York, pp 2–10Google Scholar
  15. Liang CY, Li A, Niu XM (2007) Video authentication and tamper detection based on cloud model. In: Third international conference on intelligent information hiding and multimedia signal processing (IIHMSP), vol 1. IEEE, New York, pp 225–228Google Scholar
  16. Musmann HG (1995) A layered coding system for very low bit rate video coding. Signal Process Image Commun 7(4):267–278CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ostermann J, Gerken P (1993) Object-oriented analysis-synthesis coding based on the source models of moving 2d-and 3d-objects. In: ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29AVG11, MPEG\(^ t\) seminar, Doc.(93), vol 710Google Scholar
  18. Park SW, Shin SU (2008) Combined scheme of encryption and watermarking in h. 264/scalable video coding (svc). New directions in intelligent interactive multimedia. Springer, Berlin, pp 351–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Patra JC, Karthik A, Meher PK, Bornand C (2008) Robust crt-based watermarking technique for authentication of image and document. In: IEEE international conference on systems, man and cybernetics (SMC). IEEE, New York, pp 3250–3255Google Scholar
  20. Patra JC, Phua JE, Bornand C (2010) A novel dct domain crt-based watermarking scheme for image authentication surviving jpeg compression. Digit Signal Process 20(6):1597–1611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Piva A, Caldelli R, De Rosa A (2000) A dwt-based object watermarking system for mpeg-4 video streams. In: International conference on image processing (ICIP), vol 3. IEEE, New York, pp 5–8Google Scholar
  22. Pramateftakis A, Oelbaum T, Diepold K (2004) Authentication of mpeg-4-based surveillance video. In: International conference on image processing (ICIP), vol 1. IEEE, New York, pp 33–37Google Scholar
  23. Privitera CM, Stark LW (2000) Algorithms for defining visual regions-of-interest: comparison with eye fixations. IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell (T-PAMI) 22(9):970–982CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Qureshi FZ (2009) Object-video streams for preserving privacy in video surveillance. In: Sixth IEEE international conference on advanced video and signal-based surveillance (AVSS 2009). IEEE, New York, pp 442–447Google Scholar
  25. Shamim A, Robinson JA (2002) Object-based video coding by global-to-local motion segmentation. IEEE Trans Circ Syst Video Technol (T-CSVT) 12(12):1106–1116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Song H, Kuo CC (2004) A region-based h. 263+ codec and its rate control for low vbr video. IEEE Trans Multimed (T-MM) 6(3):489–500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sun Q, He D, Tian Q (2006) A secure and robust authentication scheme for video transcoding. IEEE Trans Circ Syst Video Technol (T-CSVT) 16(10):1232–1244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Swanson MD, Zhu B, Chau B, Tewfik AH (1997) Object-based transparent video watermarking. In: IEEE first workshop on multimedia signal processing. IEEE, New York, pp 369–374Google Scholar
  29. Talluri R, Oehler K, Barmon T, Courtney JD, Das A, Liao J (1997) A robust, scalable, object-based video compression technique for very low bit-rate coding. IEEE Trans Circ Syst Video Technol (T-CSVT) 7(1):221–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Tang CW, Chen CH, Yu YH, Tsai CJ (2006) Visual sensitivity guided bit allocation for video coding. IEEE Trans Multimed (T-MM) 8(1):11–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Thomas T, Emmanuel S, Subramanyam A, Kankanhalli MS (2009) Joint watermarking scheme for multiparty multilevel drm architecture. IEEE Trans Inf Foren Secur (T-IFS) 4(4):758–767CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Thomas T, Emmanuel S, Zhang P, Kankanhalli MS (2010) An authentication mechanism using chinese remainder theorem for efficient surveillance video transmission. In: Seventh IEEE international conference on advanced video and signal based surveillance (AVSS). IEEE, New York, pp 567–573Google Scholar
  33. Wandell BA (1995) Foundations of vision. Sinauer Associates, SunderlandGoogle Scholar
  34. Wang H, Tsaftaris SA, Katsaggelos AK (2006) Joint source-channel coding for wireless object-based video communications utilizing data hiding. IEEE Trans Circ Syst Video Technol (T-CSVT) 15(8):2158–2169Google Scholar
  35. Wang S, Yang J, Zhao Y, Cai A, Li SZ (2011) A surveillance video analysis and storage scheme for scalable synopsis browsing. In: IEEE international conference on computer vision workshops (ICCV workshops). IEEE, New York, pp 1947–1954Google Scholar
  36. Wang W, Xia XG (2010) A closed-form robust chinese remainder theorem and its performance analysis. IEEE Trans Signal Process (T-SP) 58(11):5655–5666MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wu Y, Deng RH (2006) Scalable authentication of mpeg-4 streams. IEEE Trans Multimed (T-MM) 8(1):152–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peng Zhang
    • 1
  • Tony Thomas
    • 2
  • Tao Zhuo
    • 3
  • Wei Huang
    • 4
  • Hanqiao Huang
    • 5
  1. 1.School of Computer ScienceNorthwestern Polytechnical UniversityXi’anChina
  2. 2.Indian Institute of Information Technology and ManagementThiruvananthapuramIndia
  3. 3.Sensor-enhanced Social Media (SeSaMe) CentreNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore
  4. 4.School of Information EngineeringNanchang UniversityNanchangChina
  5. 5.School of Aeronautics and Astronautics EngineeringAir Force Engineering UniversityXi’anChina

Personalised recommendations