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Tab. 2 Descriptive Statistics by Family Background

From: Overqualification of graduates: assessing the role of family backgroundÜberqualifikation von Hochschulabsolventen: Welche Rolle spielt der familiäre Hintergrund?

  Low PE High PE  
  Mean Mean Diff.
Dependent variable:    
Overqualification 0.235 0.161 0.074 \({}^{***}\)
(Pre-)Study characteristics:    
Vocational education 0.468 0.263 0.205 \({}^{***}\)
School grade a \(-\) 0.116 0.136 \(-\) 0.252 \({}^{***}\)
University grade b \(-\) 0.038 0.044 \(-\) 0.082 \({}^{**}\)
Duration of study b \(-\) 0.009 0.011 \(-\) 0.020
Univ. of applied sciences (UAS) 0.342 0.148 0.194 \({}^{***}\)
University types, Subjects:    
Univ.: Medicine & Law 0.078 0.149 \(-\) 0.071 \({}^{***}\)
Univ.: Teaching 0.101 0.124 \(-\) 0.023 \({}^{**}\)
Univ.: STEM Subjects 0.207 0.293 \(-\) 0.086 \({}^{***}\)
UAS: STEM Subjects 0.237 0.095 0.143 \({}^{***}\)
Univ.: Bus & Econ 0.150 0.139 0.012
UAS: Bus & Econ 0.063 0.026 0.037 \({}^{***}\)
Univ.: Soc & Cult Science 0.121 0.147 \(-\) 0.026 \({}^{**}\)
UAS: Soc & Cult Science 0.042 0.028 0.014 \({}^{**}\)
Job found through:    
Agency of parents/friends 0.076 0.079 \(-\) 0.003
Job before studying 0.063 0.030 0.033 \({}^{***}\)
Job while studying 0.136 0.115 0.020 \({}^{*}\)
Internship 0.160 0.164 \(-\) 0.004
Worked during study:    
Yes: related to subject 0.560 0.580 \(-\) 0.020
Yes: not related to subject 0.223 0.150 0.073 \({}^{***}\)
Not worked during study 0.217 0.270 \(-\) 0.053 \({}^{***}\)
Study was financed by:    
Own work (in %) 32.243 24.025 8.218 \({}^{***}\)
Parental support (in %) 33.948 57.407 \(-\) 23.46 \({}^{***}\)
Distance work and native place:    
Less than 50 km 0.492 0.444 0.048 \({}^{***}\)
Between 50 km and 100 km 0.162 0.126 0.036 \({}^{***}\)
More than 100 km 0.346 0.430 \(-\) 0.084 \({}^{***}\)
Improve career prospects:    
Commitment to the job 0.435 0.431 0.004
Gained experience abroad 0.254 0.381 \(-\) 0.127 \({}^{***}\)
Established social networks 0.393 0.422 \(-\) 0.030 \({}^{*}\)
Have been mobile 0.295 0.305 \(-\) 0.011
Attended additional courses 0.409 0.422 \(-\) 0.013
Future goals    
Above-average performance 0.686 0.685 0.001
Fully exploit own potential 0.798 0.804 \(-\) 0.006
Fill a leading position 0.553 0.541 0.013
Observations 1997 1709 3706
  1. a Standardised within federal states b Standardised within subjects and university types; Significant at 1 % \({}^{***}\), significant at 5 % \({}^{**}\), significant at 10 % \({}^{*}\). Source: HIS-Graduate Panel 1997.