Skip to main content

The influence of spoiler on the aerodynamic performances and longitudinal stability of the passenger car under high speed condition


Models of the passenger car without and with rear spoiler (types S1 and S2) are created using SolidWorks software. The ANSYS software/Fluid Flow (CFX) module was used to analyze deeply these models based on the numerical approach in order to achieve higher speed for vehicle with maintaining the stability of the car at the same time. Results of the numerical analysis proved that the spoiler has great influence on the longitudinal stability incensement, especially under high speeds conditions. While the shape of the spoiler is not significant factor on the stability. The lift force was reduced 7.6 times when used the spoiler (type S2) compared with to the vehicle without spoiler. While the drag force was increased 12% when used the spoiler (type S2). It was analyzed the influence of existence the rear spoiler on the passenger car, as well as the effect of the shape and construction dimensions of the spoiler on the longitudinal stability. It was developed integrated approach that included the design and numerical analysis of the vehicle stability. It was proved based on the developed approach how can reduced the negative effect of some factors in order to enhance the stability of the vehicle.

Graphical Abstract

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16
Fig. 17
Fig. 18
Fig. 19
Fig. 20
Fig. 21


A :

Frontal area (m2)

c D :

Drag coefficient (− )

c L :

Lift coefficient (− )

c LFront :

Front lift coefficient (− )

c LRear :

Rear lift coefficient (− )

c pitch :

Pitch moment coefficient (− )

\(C_{\varepsilon 1}\) :

k-ε Turbulence model constant (− )

\(C_{\varepsilon 2}\) :

k-ε Turbulence model constant (− )

\(k\) :

Turbulence kinetic energy (m2/s2)

l :

Wheelbase of the vehicle (m)

M :

Pitch moment of the vehicle (N·m)

v :

Speed (m/s)

\(P_{{\text{k}}}\) :

Turbulence production due to viscous for (kg/m·s3)

\(P_{{{\text{kb}}}}\) :

Buoyancy forces (kg/m·s3)

\(P_{\varepsilon b}\) :

Buoyancy forces (kg/m·s3)

R D :

Drag force (N)

R L :

Lift force (N)

\(U_{{\text{j}}}\) :

Speed vector (m/s)

\(\rho\) :

Density (kg/m3)

\(\sigma_{\varepsilon }\) :

k-ε Turbulence model constant (− )

\(\mu\) :

Molecular (dynamic) viscosity (kg/m·s)

\(\mu_{t}\) :

Turbulence viscosity (kg/m·s)

\(\varepsilon\) :

Turbulence dissipation rate (m2/s3)


  • A2 wind tunnel, available at:, (accessed 10 September 2021)

  • ANSYS Inc: ANSYS CFX-Solver Theory Guide (2011), available at: (accessed 18 Oct 2021)

  • Buchheim R, Maretzke J, Piatek R (1985) The control of aerodynamic parameters influencing vehicle dynamics. SAE Trans 94:626–639

    Google Scholar 

  • Buljac A, Kozmar H, Dzijan I (2016) Aerodynamic performance of the underbody and wings of an open-wheel race car. Trans FAMENA 40:19–34

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cheng SY, Tsubokura M, Nakashima T, Nouzama T, Okada Y (2011) A numerical analysis of transient flow past road vehicles subjected to pitching oscillation. J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn 99:511–522

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Crolla D (2009) Automotive engineering, powertrain, chassis system and vehicle body. Butterworth-HeinemannanImprintof Elsevier, UK

    Google Scholar 

  • Fontaras G, Dilara P (2012) The evolution of European passenger car characteristics 2000–2010 and its effects on real-world CO2 emissions and CO2 reduction policy. Energy Policy 49:719–730

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fontaras G, Samaras Z (2010) On the way to 130 g CO2/km–Estimating the future characteristics of the average European passenger car. Energy Policy 38:1826–1833

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fu C, Bounds CP, Selent C, Uddin M (2019) Turbulence modeling effects on the aerodynamic characterizations of a NASCAR Generation 6 race car subject to yaw and pitch changes. Proc Inst Mech Eng D 233:3600–3620

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hamut HS, El-emam RS, Aydin M, Dincer I (2014) Effects of rear spoilers on ground vehicle aerodynamic drag. Int J Numer Method H 24:627–642

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Howell J, Windsor S, Passmore M (2021) Some observations on shape factors influencing aerodynamic lift on passenger cars. Fluids 6:44

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hucho W, Sovran G (1993) Aerodynamics of road vehicles. Annual Rev Fluid Mech 25:485–537

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • IEA, Transport sector CO2 emissions by mode in the Sustainable Development Scenario, 2000–2030, IEA, Paris, available at: (accessed 05 Oct 2021)

  • Ipilakyaa TD, Tuleun LT, Kekung MO (2018) Computational fluid dynamics modelling of an aerodynamic rear spoiler on cars. Niger J Technol 37:975–980

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ismail AA, Abdulla NN (2011) Effect of rotating cylinder on the drag force of a road truck vehicle. J Eng 17:636–646

    Google Scholar 

  • James AE (2013) Design of an Aerodynamic Rear Spoiler. Federal University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria

    Google Scholar 

  • Jankovic A, Jokovic S, Milovanovic M (1997) Influence of vertical component of air resistance to braking vehicle stability. Mobility Vehicle Mech 23:3–11

    Google Scholar 

  • Jankovic A (2008) Vehicle Dynamics, Kragujevac.

  • Kim JS, Kim S, Sung J, Kim JS, Choi J (2006) Effects of an air spoiler on the wake of a road vehicle by PIV measurements. J vis 9:411–418

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kim JS, Sung J, Kim S, Kim JS (2008) PIV measurements on the change of the three-dimensional wake structures by an air spoiler of a road vehicle. J vis 11:45–54

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kurec K, Remer M, Piechna J (2019) The influence of different aerodynamic setups on enhancing a sports car’s braking. Int J Mech Sci 164:105140

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • McBeath S (2017) Competition Car Aerodynamics, 3rd edition.

  • Pütz R, Serné T (2017) Rennwagentechnik - Praxislehrgang Fahrdynamik: Eine praktische Anleitung für Amateure und Profis. Springer-Vieweg-Verlag, UK

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Sakran HK (2016) The effect of vehicle body shapes on the near wake region and drag coefficient: a numerical study. J Eng 22:115–131

    Google Scholar 

  • Schütz T (2013) Hucho – Aerodynamik des Automobils, Strömungsmechanik, Wärmetechnik, Fahrdynamik. Springer, Komfort

    Book  Google Scholar 

  • Simic D. (1988), Motor vehicle, Belgrade.

  • Sivaraj G, Parammasivam KM, Prasath MS, Vadivelu P, Lakshmanan D (2021) Flow analysis of rear end body shape of the vehicle for better aerodynamic performance. Mater Today 47:2175–2181

    Google Scholar 

  • Stojanovic N, Glisovic J, Grujic I, Davinic A, Narayan S, Usman Kaisan M, Abubakar S (2018) 3D modelling and aerodynamic simulation of a passenger car. Mach Des 10:53–56

    Google Scholar 

  • Stojanovic N, Miloradovic D, Abdullah OI, Grujic I, Vasiljevic S (2020) Effect of rear spoiler shape on car aerodynamics and stability. In: Karabegović I (ed) New Technologies. Development and Application III, pp 340–347

    Google Scholar 

  • Szudarek M, Piechna J (2021) CFD analysis of the influence of the front wing setup on a time attack sports car’s aerodynamics. Energies 14:7907

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vdovin A, Löfdah L, Sebben S, Walker T (2014) Investigation of vehicle ride height and wheel position influence on the aerodynamic forces of ground vehicles. In: The international vehicle aerodynamics conference, Loughborough, pp. 81–90.

  • Wilcox DC (2006) Turbulence Modeling for CFD, 3rd Edition, D C W Industries, California

  • Yuan Z, Wang Y (2017) Effect of underbody structure on aerodynamic drag and optimization. J Meas Eng 5:194–204

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


This paper was realized within the researching project “The research of vehicle safety as part of a cybernetic system: Driver-Vehicle-Environment” ref. no. TR35041, funded by Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia. Also, the authors would like to thank the System Technology and Mechanical Design Methodology Group/Hamburg University of Technology to support this research paper.


Not applicable.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ivan Grujic.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship and/or publication of this article. On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Springer Nature or its licensor holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Stojanovic, N., Abdullah, O.I., Grujic, I. et al. The influence of spoiler on the aerodynamic performances and longitudinal stability of the passenger car under high speed condition. J Vis (2022).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI:


  • Vehicle stability
  • Rear spoiler
  • Fluid flow (CFX)
  • Lift force
  • Drag force
  • Numerical method