Physics of aeration in slug: flow visualization analysis in horizontal pipes

Abstract

Aeration in slug and associated secondary flow leads to surging of pressure and erosion corrosion in pipe. Surging of pressure develops high mechanical impact on the pipe, and erosion corrosion reduces the thickness of internal wall, thereby resulting in pipe failure. To explore the phenomena of aeration in slug, flow visualization analysis is reported in this paper for intermittent flow sub-regimes and their transition. Analysis is reported for onset of slug, transition of plug to slug flow and development of aeration at the slug front. The visualized images and the motion pictures captured using high-speed photography in the present experiments are used to depict the process of air entrapment during the transition of wavy-stratified flow to slug flow as well as plug flow to slug flow. It is depicted for the first time through our visualization analysis that gas bubble entrapment in slug happens due to plunging kind of wave breaking mechanism. The captured images are also analyzed to describe the phenomena of augmentation of aeration in slug leading to the formation of highly aerated slug flow. Thorough understanding of aeration in slug will help in avoiding the chances of pipe failure.

Graphical abstract

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15

Notes

  1. 1.

    Literature on wave breaking in horizontal pipe flow is scarce. Recently, Vollestad et al. (2019a, 2019b) reported microscale wave breaking in pipe flow.

  2. 2.

    In the current research paper, the experiments are carried out on 25 ± 0.15 mm I.D. pipe.

  3. 3.

    In the present work, near the boundary region, at \({\mathrm{Re}}_{\mathrm{SG}} =2650\), highly aerated slug flow is observed.

References

  1. Ahmed WH, Bello MM, El Nakla M, Al Sarkhi A, Badr HM (2014) Experimental investigation of flow accelerated corrosion under two-phase flow conditions. Nucl Eng Des 267:34–43

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Al-Sheikh J, Saunders D, Brodkey RS (1970) Prediction of flow patterns in horizontal two-phase pipe flow. Can J Chem Eng 48(1):21–29

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Andritsos N, Hanratty T (1987) Interfacial instabilities for horizontal gas–liquid flows in pipelines. Int J Multiph Flow 13(5):583–603

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Ayati AA, Farias P, Azevedo L, de Paula I (2017) Characterization of linear interfacial waves in a turbulent gas–liquid pipe flow. Phys Fluids 29(6):062106

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Baker O (1953) Design of pipelines for the simultaneous flow of oil and gas. Fall meeting of the petroleum branch of AIME

  6. Barnea D, Shoham O, Taitel Y, Dukler A (1980) Flow pattern transition for gas–liquid flow in horizontal and inclined pipes. Comparison of experimental data with theory. Int J Multiph Flow 6(3):217–225

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Barnea D, Taitel Y (1993) Kelvin–Helmholtz stability criteria for stratified flow: viscous versus non-viscous (inviscid) approaches. Int J Multiph Flow 19(4):639–649

    MATH  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Benjamin TB (1968) Gravity currents and related phenomena. J Fluid Mech 31(2):209–248

    MATH  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Conte MG, Hegde GA, da Silva MJ, Sum AK, Morales RE (2017) Characterization of slug initiation for horizontal air–water two-phase flow. Exp Therm Fluid Sci 87:80–92

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Deane GB, Stokes MD (2002) Scale dependence of bubble creation mechanisms in breaking waves. Nature 418(6900):839

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Dinaryanto O, Prayitno YAK, Majid AI, Hudaya AZ, Nusirwan YA, Widyaparaga A, Indarto A, Deendarlianto A (2017) Experimental investigation on the initiation and flow development of gas-liquid slug two-phase flow in a horizontal pipe. Exp Therm Fluid Sci 81:93–108

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Dukler AE, Hubbard MG (1975) A model for gas–liquid slug flow in horizontal and near horizontal tubes. Ind Eng Chem Fundam 14(4):337–347

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Fan Z, Jepson W, Hanratty T (1992) A model for stationary slugs. Int J Multiph Flow 18(4):477–494

    MATH  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Ghajar AJ, Tang CC (2007) Heat transfer measurements, flow pattern maps, and flow visualization for non-boiling two-phase flow in horizontal and slightly inclined pipe. Heat Transf Eng 28(6):525–540

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Grenier P, Fabre J, Fagundes Netto J (1997) Slug flow in pipelines: recent advances and future developments. BHR Group Conf Ser Publ 24:107–124

    Google Scholar 

  16. Hubbard M (1966) The characterization of flow regimes for horizontal two-phase flow. Proc Heat Transf Fluid Mech Inst 1996:100–121

    Google Scholar 

  17. Jeffreys H (1925) On the formation of water waves by wind. Proc R Soc Lond Ser A Contain Pap Math Phys Character 107(742):189–206

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  18. Jones OC Jr, Zuber N (1975) The interrelation between void fraction fluctuations and flow patterns in two-phase flow. Int J Multiph Flow 2(3):273–306

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Kadri U, Mudde R, Oliemans R, Bonizzi M, Andreussi P (2009) Prediction of the transition from stratified to slug flow or roll-waves in gas–liquid horizontal pipes. Int J Multiph Flow 35(11):1001–1010

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Kihara N, Hanazaki H, Mizuya T, Ueda H (2007) Relationship between airflow at the critical height and momentum transfer to the traveling waves. Phys Fluids 19(1):015102

    MATH  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Kim T-W, Al-Safran E, Pereyra E, Sarica C (2020) Experimental study using advanced diagnostics to investigate slug aeration and bubble behavior in high liquid viscosity horizontal slug flow. J Pet Sci Eng 191:107202

  22. Kong R, Kim S (2017) Characterization of horizontal air–water two-phase flow. Nucl Eng Des 312:266–276

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Kong R, Kim S, Bajorek S, Tien K, Hoxie C (2018a) Effects of pipe size on horizontal two-phase flow: flow regimes, pressure drop, two-phase flow parameters, and drift-flux analysis. Exp Therm Fluid Sci 96:75–89

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Kong R, Rau A, Kim S, Bajorek S, Tien K, Hoxie C (2018b) Experimental study of horizontal air–water plug-to-slug transition flow in different pipe sizes. Int J Heat Mass Transf 123:1005–1020

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Kordyban ES, Ranov T (1970) Mechanism of slug formation in horizontal two-phase flow. J Basic Eng 92(4):857–864

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Lin P, Hanratty T (1986) Prediction of the initiation of slugs with linear stability theory. Int J Multiph Flow 12(1):79–98

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Mandhane J, Gregory G, Aziz K (1974) A flow pattern map for gas–liquid flow in horizontal pipes. Int J Multiph Flow 1(4):537–553

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Miles JW (1957) On the generation of surface waves by shear flows. J Fluid Mech 3(2):185–204

    MathSciNet  MATH  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Miles JW (1959a) On the generation of surface waves by shear flows. Part 2. J Fluid Mech 6(4):568–582

    MathSciNet  MATH  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Miles JW (1959b) On the generation of surface waves by shear flows part 3. Kelvin–Helmholtz instability. J Fluid Mech 6(4):583–598

    MathSciNet  MATH  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Netto JF, Fabre J, Peresson L (1999) Shape of long bubbles in horizontal slug flow. Int J Multiph Flow 25(6–7):1129–1160

    MATH  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Pumphrey HC, Elmore PA (1990) The entrainment of bubbles by drop impacts. J Fluid Mech 220:539–567

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Ruder Z, Hanratty T (1990) A definition of gas–liquid plug flow in horizontal pipes. Int J Multiph Flow 16(2):233–242

    MATH  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Saincher S, Banerjee J (2016) Influence of wave breaking on the hydrodynamics of wave energy converters: a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 58:704–717

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Sanchis A, Johnson GW, Jensen A (2011) The formation of hydrodynamic slugs by the interaction of waves in gas–liquid two-phase pipe flow. Int J Multiph Flow 37(4):358–368

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Shuwen Z, Yeli Y (2004) Statistics of breaking waves and its applications to estimation of air–sea fluxes (i). Sci China Ser D Earth Sci 47(1):78–85

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Spedding P, Spence D (1993) Flow regimes in two-phase gas–liquid flow. Int J Multiph Flow 19(2):245–280

    MATH  Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Sun JY, Jepson W (1992) Slug flow characteristics and their effect on corrosion rates in horizontal oil and gas pipelines. In: SPE annual technical conference and exhibition

  39. Taitel Y, Dukler A (1976) A model for predicting flow regime transitions in horizontal and near horizontal gas–liquid flow. AIChE J 22(1):47–55

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Talley JD, Worosz T, Kim S, Buchanan JR Jr (2015) Characterization of horizontal air–water two-phase flow in a round pipe part i: flow visualization. Int J Multiph Flow 76:212–222

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Thaker J, Banerjee J (2016a) Influence of intermittent flow sub-patterns on erosion-corrosion in horizontal pipe. J Pet Sci Eng 145:298–320

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Thaker J, Banerjee J (2016b) On intermittent flow characteristics of gas–liquid two-phase flow. Nucl Eng Des 310:363–377

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Thaker J, Banerjee J (2017) Transition of plug to slug flow and associated fluid dynamics. Int J Multiph Flow 91:63–75

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Vaze M, Banerjee J (2011) Experimental visualization of two-phase flow patterns and transition from stratified to slug flow. Proc Inst Mech Eng Part C J Mech Eng Sci 225(2):382–389

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Vollestad P, Ayati A, Jensen A (2019a) Experimental investigation of intermittent airflow separation and microscale wave breaking in wavy two-phase pipe flow. J Fluid Mech 878:796–819

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Vollestad P, Ayati A, Jensen A (2019b) Microscale wave breaking in stratified air–water pipe flow. Phys Fluids 31(3):032101

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Wallis GB, Dodson JE (1973) The onset of slugging in horizontal stratified air–water flow. Int J Multiph Flow 1(1):173–193

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge the financial support by Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB), India (Sanction Letter No. SB/S3/MIMER/0111/2013 dated 23-05-2014), for the development of two-phase flow test rig used for the present research.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Jyotirmay Banerjee.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (zip 237503 KB)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Saini, S., Banerjee, J. Physics of aeration in slug: flow visualization analysis in horizontal pipes. J Vis (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12650-020-00737-9

Download citation

Keywords

  • Plug flow
  • Wave breaking
  • Aeration
  • Less aerated slug flow (LAS)
  • Highly aerated slug flow (HAS)