Given a tabular dataset which should be graphically represented, how could the current complex visualization pipeline be improved? Could we produce a more visually enriched final representation, while minimizing the user intervention? Most of the existing approaches lack in capacity to provide a simplified end-to-end solution and leave the intricate process of setting up the data connections to the user. Their results mainly depend on necessary user actions at every step of the visualization pipeline and fail to consider the data structural properties and the constantly rising volume of open and linked data. This work is motivated by the need of a flexible framework which will improve the user experience and interaction by simplifying the process and enhancing the result, capitalizing on the enrichment of the final visualization based on the semantic analysis of linked data. We propose Lumina, a visualization framework, which : (a) builds on structural data analytics and semantic analysis principles, (b) increases the explainability and expressiveness of the visualization leveraging open data and semantic enrichment, (c) minimizes user interventions at every step of the visualization pipeline and (d) fulfills the growing need for open-source, modular and self-hosted solutions. Using publicly available read-world datasets, we validate the adaptability of Lumina and demonstrate the effectiveness and practicality of our method, in comparison to other open source solutions.
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This research has been cofinanced by the European Union and Greek national funds through the Operational Program Competitiveness, Entrepreneurship and Innovation, under the call RESEARCH CREATE INNOVATE (Project Code: T1EDK-03052), as well as from the H2020 Research and Innovation Programme under Grant Agreement No. 780121.
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Appendix A Semantic concepts
RDF - known as Resource Description Framework - is a W3C specification that is heavily used for knowledge management in web applications and provides models to describe knowledge as web resources and relationships between those web resources. It is designed to be mostly readable by computers connected on the world wide web and relies heavily on XML. RDF is used to provide semantic meaning to the information available on the web. Describes resources (web resources identified using URIS) using properties (resources also identified by URIS) and property values (other resources or literal values). RDF statements are in the form of triplets: subject predicate object. Such triplets are used in special datastores called RDF-stores or RDF-triplet stores and form the basis of describing a larger knowledge graph of semantically connected resources. Such knowledge graphs are maintained in online projects, such as DBpedia and Wikidata, that contain structured information with semantic meaning mainly retrieved from Wikipedia articles. DBpedia and Wikidata maintain open source knowledge base graphs of semantic information extracted from various Wikimedia projects, mainly Wikipedia. They provide public API endpoints for issuing semantic queries to the knowledge graph. Both of them also present structured information of concepts in the form of HTML pages. Knowledge graphs based on RDF triples can be queried by a special query language for the semantic web called SPARQL. Public knowledge graph projects, such as the ones mentioned above, expose HTTP REST APIs that support SPARQL queries. SPARQL queries can retrieve values from structured or semi structured and assist exploration by querying relationships between resources.
For example in DBpedia concepts are entities of a specific ontology type, such as Woman is an entity of type Person. Person is a subClass of Agent and Agent is a subClass of the root ontology owl:Thing. By issuing a specific SPARQL query in the DBpedia API we can retrieve all top-level classes that are direct ancestors of owl:Thing, thus compiling a list of the DBpedia’s core concepts, see Fig. 15:
In Wikidata, each item represents a semantic topic directly identifiable by an ID prefixed with Q. For example, the item with ID Q1 maps to the semantic concept of Universe as shown in Fig. 16
The root class of Wikidata items is a special Entity item described by the ID: Q35120. By Issuing a specific SPARQL query we can retrieve all direct ancestors of the Entity item.
Semantic analysis also involves a large amount of text and name analysis on raw data and specially meanings behind words, such as using the Wordnet system. Python includes a powerful framework widely used in Industry and Academics for natural language processing named NLTK-Natural Language Toolkit. It provides easy-to-use interfaces to over 50 corpora and lexical resources such as Wordnet, along with a suite of text processing libraries for classification, tokenization, stemming, tagging, parsing, and semantic reasoning, wrappers for industrial-strength NLP libraries (https://www.nltk.org/). Wordnet is a lexical database for the English Language, which mainly groups English words into synsets (sets of synonyms) providing also Part Of Speech information for each word (Noun, verb, adjective, adverb). Words are linked by semantic relationships, such as hypernyms or hyponyms and form semantic hierarchies. Hypernym of a word is a general term that the word belongs to, for example worker is a Hypernym of word skilled worker. Person is a Hypernym of word worker. Hyponym of a word is a more specific term, whose semantic meaning is included in the meaning of the original word. For example, soccer ball is a hyponym of the word ball. Wordnet corpus is included in the Natural Language Toolkit library for Python. By exploring programmatically, the hypernym closures of random words the root hypernym of all is the synset entity.n.01 . Wordnet synsets are described by the following string pattern <word>.<letter for Part of speech>.<instance number sense>. Synset entity.n.01 refers to the first sense of wordentity as a noun.
Appendix B Semantic enrichment, symbol and color retrieval
The Semantic Analysis phase produces a data model that maintains a dictionary with all the recognized semantic concepts and named entities. The named entities recognized in the semantic analysis process are forwarded to the Named Entity Analysis process which further recognizes the individual named entity types and tries to gather Linked data from external data sources such as DBpedia, Wikidata, Twitter API and Geolocation services, see Fig. 17.
The next step is to feed all recognized semantic terms to the back-end library and retrieve relevant symbol assets (icons) and colors which are stored in reference objects in the internal data model. These symbols and color references will be ready to be used in the visualization process.
A great source for generic vector representations of everyday concepts is the highly popular FontAwesome library that includes 1500 icons in SVG format with complete search metadata. By analyzing FontAwesome search metadata files, a list of semantic topics was extracted and used to calculate popular hypernyms in Wordnet sorted by order of occurrences (Top 100). The top elements were used as a set to cover the basic semantic concepts that all words can be reduced to using hypernym closures. This ensures that we can retrieve relevant visualizations for most terms encountered in data. Visualization service maintains a semantic library of symbols represented by vector images. Each symbol is mapped to a core semantic concept and maintains metadata with other related semantic terms. For example, the specific semantic concept of hospital can be represented by a vector symbol stored in a hospital.svg file and also carry references to the following semantic terms: building, medical, health, service , see Fig. 18
Another set of useful vector representations added in the vector library were the Flags of all Countries along with semantic metadata for country codes, telephone prefixes and coordinates. Representations for the ISO 7001 Public information symbols were also added, as well as a specialized list of emoji representations (According to Unicode standards), that were linked semantically with sentiment concepts. Lumina includes the Visual service API which allows for color management. It supports a wide list of known color names mapped to HEX, RGB and HSL values. The list contains a couple of thousands of colors retrieved from specific domains such as X11 and HTML4 spec. A second list of semantic mappings to color names or color values is maintained. Visual service API provides calls for generating color palettes, based on arrays of semantic terms, see Fig. 19.
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Kagkelidis, K., Dimitriadis, I. & Vakali, A. Lumina: an adaptive, automated and extensible prototype for exploring, enriching and visualizing data. J Vis (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12650-020-00718-y
- Information visualization
- Automatic visualization
- Open source visualization software