Journal of Visualization

, Volume 22, Issue 4, pp 783–794 | Cite as

Particle tracking velocimetry and flame front detection techniques on commercial aircraft debris striking events

  • Kan LiuEmail author
  • David Liu
Regular Paper


Debris striking the internal structures of aircraft components is capable of causing on-board fires and leading to catastrophic damage to both the aircraft and flight crew. In the present work, two experiments were conducted to capture the characteristics of high-speed debris strikes and dry-bay fires. Particle tracking velocimetry technique was utilized to investigate the dynamics of debris striking structural components of the aircraft. In conjunction, a flame front detection measurement technique was developed to identify the size and duration of dry-bay fires. Results demonstrated the ability to utilize fundamental image correlation techniques to determine velocity, size, and duration of flash events in support of aircraft survivability and safety research.

Graphic abstract


Particle tracking velocimetry Particle image velocimetry Image processing Aircraft survivability 

List of symbols


Frame number


After impact






Number of particles


Before impact




X position


Y position





The authors would like to thank the 704th Test Group for providing data, research, and learning opportunities. Also special thanks to the Joint Aircraft Survivability Program (JASP) office and their program manager for the support and guidance.


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Copyright information

© This is a U.S. government work and not under copyright protection in the U.S.; foreign copyright protection may apply 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Air Force Institute of TechnologyWright-Patterson Air Force BaseDaytonUSA

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