Planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging of kerosene injection in supersonic flow

  • Leichao YangEmail author
  • Jiangbo Peng
  • Xiaohui Li
  • Jianhan Liang
  • Xin Yu
  • Bin An
Regular Paper


The kerosene vapor distribution was visualized using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique in a model scramjet engine combustor in Ma 2.52 flow with stagnation temperature of 1486 K. Two cavities were equipped in the flow path, and the qualitative distribution of kerosene vapor was observed and recorded in the downstream cavity. Two representative injection schemes, i.e., parallel and transverse injections, are compared with variation of pre-injection pressures. High signal-to-noise ratio kerosene-PLIF images are acquired. For parallel injection, the kerosene distribution in the downstream cavity is significantly affected by the existence of the upstream cavity. Only a small portion of fuel propagates to the downstream, resulting in a fuel-lean environment in the cavity. In the case of transverse injection, the fuel is largely entrained to the downstream cavity by the recirculation flow, creating a fuel-rich environment in the cavity. The kerosene-PLIF is verified to be a powerful tool for the investigation of fuel distribution for scramjet applications.

Graphical abstract


Planar laser-induced fluorescence Kerosene injection Scramjet Supersonic flow 



The financial support by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under the Grant Number of 11502293 is highly appreciated.


  1. An B, Wang Z, Yang L, Li X, Zhu J (2017) Experimental investigation on the impacts of ignition energy and position on ignition processes in supersonic flows by laser induced plasma. Acta Astronaut 137:444–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arnold A, Bombach R, Hubschmid W, Inauen A, Käppeli B (2000) Fuel-oil concentration in a gas turbine burner measured with laser-induced fluorescence. Exp Fluids 29:468–477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baranger P, Orain M, Grisch F (2005) Fluorescence spectroscopy of kerosene vapour: application to gas turbines. In: Paper presented at the 43rd AIAA aerospace sciences meeting and exhibit, RenoGoogle Scholar
  4. Baranovsky SI, Schetz JA (1980) Effect of injection angle on liquid injection in supersonic flow. AIAA J 18:625–629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Barnes FW, Tu Q, Segal C (2016) Fuel–air mixing experiments in a directly fueled supersonic cavity flameholder. J Propuls Power 32:305–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Charalampous G, Hardalupas Y, Brown C, Mondragon U, McDonell V (2013) Investigation of injection characteristics of alternative aviation fuels by laser-induced fluorescence imaging. In: Paper presented at the 51st AIAA aerospace sciences meeting including the new horizons forum and aerospace exposition, Grapevine (Dallas/Ft. Worth Region)Google Scholar
  7. Curran ET, Murthy SNB (2000) Scramjet propulsion. Progress in astronautice, vol 189. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, RestonGoogle Scholar
  8. Do H, Im SK, Cappelli MA, Mungal MG (2010) Plasma assisted flame ignition of supersonic flows over a flat wall. Combust Flame 157:2298–2305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fan X, Yu G (2006) Analysis of thermophysical properties of Daqing RP-3 aviation kerosene. J Propuls Technol 27:187–192Google Scholar
  10. Fansler TD, Parrish SE (2015) Spray measurement technology: a review. Meas Sci Technol 26:012002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Joshi BP, Schetz JA (1975) Effect of injector shape on penetration and spread of liquid jets. AIAA J 13:1137–1138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kush EA, Schetz JA (1973) Liquid jet injection into a supersonic flow. AIAA J 11:1223–1224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lantz A, Collin R, Sjöholm J, Li ZS, Petersson P, Aldén M (2011) High-speed imaging of fuel/OH distributions in a gas turbine pilot burner at elevated pressure. In: Paper presented at the 49th AIAA aerospace sciences meeting including the new horizons forum and aerospace exposition, OrlandoGoogle Scholar
  14. Lee J, Lin K-C, Eklund D (2015) Challenges in fuel injection for high-speed propulsion systems. AIAA J 53:1405–1423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lemoine F, Castanet G (2013) Temperature and chemical composition of droplets by optical measurement techniques: a state-of-the-art review. Exp Fluids 54:1572CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Li X, Liu W, Pan Y, Yang L, An B (2017a) Experimental investigation on laser-induced plasma ignition of hydrocarbon fuel in scramjet engine at takeover flight conditions. Acta Astronaut 138:79–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Li XP, Liu W, Yang L, Zhu J, Pan Y (2017b) Experimental investigation on fuel distribution using kerosene-PLIF in a scramjet combustor with dual cavity. In: 21st AIAA international space planes and hypersonics technologies conference. International space planes and hypersonic systems and technologies conferences. American Institute of Aeronautics and AstronauticsGoogle Scholar
  18. Liu CY, Zhao YH, Wang ZG, Wang HB, Sun MB (2017) Dynamics and mixing mechanism of transverse jet injection into a supersonic combustor with cavity flameholder. Acta Astronaut 136:90–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Livingston T, Segal C, Schindler M, Vinogradov VA (2000) Penetration and spreading of liquid jets in an external–internal compression inlet. AIAA J 38:989–994CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Löfström C, Kaaling H, Aldén M (1996) Visualization of fuel distributions in premixed ducts in a low-emission gas turbine combustor using laser techniques. In: Paper presented at the 26th symposium (international) on combustionGoogle Scholar
  21. Northam GB, Greenberg I, Byington CS, Capriotti DP (1992) Evaluation of parallel injector configurations for Mach 2 combustion. J Propuls Power 8:491–499CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Orain M, Baranger P, Ledier C, Apeloig J, Grisch F (2014) Fluorescence spectroscopy of kerosene vapour at high temperature and pressures: potential for gas turbines measurements. Appl Phys B Lasers Opt 116:729–745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Perurena JB, Asma CO, Theunissen R, Chazot O (2009) Experimental investigation of liquid jet injection into Mach 6 hypersonic crossflow. Exp Fluids 46:403–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Read RW, Rogerson JW, Hochgreb S (2013) Planar laser-induced fluorescence fuel imaging during gas-turbine relight. J Propuls Power 29:961–974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Seiner JM, Dash SM, Kenzakowski DC (2001) Historical survey on enhanced mixing in scramjet engines. J Propuls Power 17:1273–1286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Thakur A, Segal C (2008) Concentration Distribution in a Supersonic Flow Recirculation Region. J Propuls Power 24:64–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ukai T, Hossein ZB, Erdem E, Kin HL, Kontis K, Shigeru O (2014) Effectiveness of jet location on mixing characteristics inside a cavity in supersonic flow. Exp Thermal Fluid Sci 52:59–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wu L, Wang Z-G, Li Q, Li C (2016) Study on transient structure characteristics of round liquid jet in supersonic crossflows. J Vis 19:337–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Xu S, Fei L (2015) Observation of kerosene injected from a cavity into a supersonic airstream. Procedia Eng 99:948–953CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Yang L, Li X, Liang J, Yu Y, Yu X (2015) Laser-induced plasma ignition of hydrocarbon fuel in supersonic flows. In: 20th AIAA international space planes and hypersonic systems and technologies conference. American Institute of Aeronautics and AstronauticsGoogle Scholar
  31. Ye JF, Zhang ZR, Li GH, Zhang LR, Hu ZY (2011) The experiment study of laser induced kerosene fluorescence. In: Paper presented at the Chinese congress of theoretical and applied mechanics 2011Google Scholar
  32. Zhang S-H, Yu X-I, Kang G-J, L-h Chen, X-Y Zhang (2012a) Quantitative local equivalence ratio measurements in kerosene/air hypersonic combustion. Phys Gases Theory Appl 7:73–79Google Scholar
  33. Zhang S, Yu X, Li F, Kang G, Chen L, Zhang X (2012b) Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy for local equivalence ratio measurement of kerosene/air mixture at elevated pressure. Opt Lasers Eng 50:877–882CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Zimmer L, Domann R, Hardalupas Y, Ikeda Y (2003) Simultaneous laser-induced fluorescence and Mie scattering for droplet cluster measurements. AIAA J 41:2170–2178CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Visualization Society of Japan 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Leichao Yang
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jiangbo Peng
    • 2
  • Xiaohui Li
    • 2
  • Jianhan Liang
    • 1
  • Xin Yu
    • 2
  • Bin An
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Aerospace Science and EngineeringNational University of Defense TechnologyChangshaChina
  2. 2.National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Tunable LaserHarbin Institute of TechnologyHarbinChina

Personalised recommendations