Journal of Visualization

, Volume 22, Issue 4, pp 773–781 | Cite as

Flow visualization of cryogenic spray from a movable pintle injector

  • Keonwoong Lee
  • Dongsoo Shin
  • Min Son
  • Heejang Moon
  • Jaye KooEmail author
Regular Paper


Pintle injector has the advantages of wide throttle-ability by sustaining high combustion efficiency and weight lightening by replacing multi-injector elements with a single injector element. However, compared to typical injectors with a fixed shape, like shear coaxial or coaxial swirl injector, there are many complex variables owing to the moving parts. In this study, using cryogenic liquid nitrogen and gaseous nitrogen as simulants, experiments on cryogenic nitrogen spray visualization were performed to simulate cryogenic oxygen and gaseous methane combustion experiments. Experimental conditions were varied by changing the pintle tip angle, pintle opening distance, and simulant supplying pressure. With the visualization images, the spray angle of cryogenic spray was obtained and compared with the previous empirical equations. The former empirical equation between total momentum ratio and spray angle is not well matched, but the other equation between velocity ratio and spray angle fits well with experimental result, through modification of parameter.

Graphical abstract


Pintle injector Visualization image Cryogenic spray 



This work was supported by Advanced Research Center Program (NRF-2013R1A5A1073861) through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korean government (MSIP) contracted through Advanced Space Propulsion Research Center at Seoul National University.


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Copyright information

© The Visualization Society of Japan 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate SchoolKorea Aerospace UniversityGoyangRepublic of Korea
  2. 2.Institute of Space Propulsion, DLRLampoldshausenGermany
  3. 3.School of Aerospace and Mechanical EngineeringKorea Aerospace UniversityGoyangRepublic of Korea

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