The jet–vortex interaction is observed in settings ranging from aeronautics to physiology. In aeronautics, it presents as a parallel interaction of the jet exhaust and aircraft wing-tip vortex, and in the diseased state of the heart called aortic regurgitation, the interaction between blood flows is characterized by a non-parallel interaction. While there is substantial research into the mechanisms of the parallel interaction, there is comparatively limited scientific material focused on the non-parallel interaction. The objective of this study was to characterize three distinct orientations (30°, 60° and 90°) of the non-parallel jet–vortex interaction in a simplified flow loop. The ratio of the jet Reynolds number to the vortex ring Reynolds number was used to define four levels of jet strength. Flow visualization and particle image velocimetry were used to qualitatively and quantitatively describe how the flow structures interacted, and the energy dissipation rate of each condition was calculated. It was determined that as the relative jet strength increases, the vortex ring dissipates more rapidly and the energy dissipation rate increases. This information provides a basis for the understanding of a vortex ring’s interaction with an impinging jet. When the angle between the jet and vortex ring flows is perpendicular, the energy dissipation rate decreased from 6.1 W at the highest jet strength to 0.3 W at the lowest jet strength, while at an angle of 30° the energy dissipation rate decreased from 51.8 to 10.3 W. This finding contradicts the expected result, which potentiates further studies of various non-parallel arrangements.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Bekeredjian R, Grayburn PA (2005) Valvular heart disease: aortic regurgitation. Circulation 112:125–134. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.104.488825
Depommier G, Labbé O, Sagaut P (2011) Evolution analysis of the main mechanisms of the jet/vortex interaction. Int J Numer Methods Fluids 67:1024–1046. https://doi.org/10.1002/fld.2404
Ferreira Gago C, Brunet S, Garnier F (2002) Numerical investigation of turbulent mixing in a jet/wake vortex ring interaction. Aiaa J. doi 10(2514/2):1643
Gharib M, Rambod E, Shariff K (1998) A universal time scale for vortex ring formation. J Fluid Mech 360:S0022112097008410. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022112097008410
Glezer A (1988) The formation of vortex rings. Phys Fluids 31:3532–3542. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.866920
Goetz WA, Lim HS, Lansac E et al (2005) Anterior mitral basal “stay” chords are essential for left ventricular geometry and function. J Heart Valve Dis 14:195–202 (203)
Hamirani YS, Dietl CA, Voyles W et al (2012) Acute aortic regurgitation. Circulation 126:1121–1126. https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.112.113993
He X, Ku DN (1994) Unsteady entrance flow development in a straight tube. J Biomech Eng 116:355. https://doi.org/10.1115/1.2895742
Ilea CG, Hoffmann AC (2011) Numerical study on the dynamics of a jet-vortex interaction. Appl Math Comput 217:5103–5112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amc.2010.07.081
Margaris P, Marles D, Gursul I (2008) Experiments on jet/vortex interaction. Exp Fluids. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00348-007-0399-7
Okafor I, Raghav V, Condado JF et al (2017) Aortic regurgitation generates a kinematic obstruction which hinders left ventricular filling. Ann Biomed Eng 45:1305–1314. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10439-017-1790-z
Stugaard M, Koriyama H, Katsuki K et al (2015) Energy loss in the left ventricle obtained by vector flow mapping as a new quantitative measure of severity of aortic regurgitation: a combined experimental and clinical study. Eur Hear J 16:723–730. https://doi.org/10.1093/ehjci/jev035
Wang FY, MQ Zaman KB (2002) Aerodynamics of a jet in the vortex ring wake of a wing. AIAA J 40:401–407. https://doi.org/10.2514/2.1669
About this article
Cite this article
Houser, S., Okafor, I., Raghav, V. et al. Flow visualization of the non-parallel jet-vortex interaction. J Vis 21, 533–542 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12650-018-0478-2