Journal of Visualization

, Volume 21, Issue 4, pp 533–542 | Cite as

Flow visualization of the non-parallel jet-vortex interaction

  • Samantha Houser
  • Ikechukwu Okafor
  • Vrishank Raghav
  • Ajit YoganathanEmail author
Regular Paper


The jet–vortex interaction is observed in settings ranging from aeronautics to physiology. In aeronautics, it presents as a parallel interaction of the jet exhaust and aircraft wing-tip vortex, and in the diseased state of the heart called aortic regurgitation, the interaction between blood flows is characterized by a non-parallel interaction. While there is substantial research into the mechanisms of the parallel interaction, there is comparatively limited scientific material focused on the non-parallel interaction. The objective of this study was to characterize three distinct orientations (30°, 60° and 90°) of the non-parallel jet–vortex interaction in a simplified flow loop. The ratio of the jet Reynolds number to the vortex ring Reynolds number was used to define four levels of jet strength. Flow visualization and particle image velocimetry were used to qualitatively and quantitatively describe how the flow structures interacted, and the energy dissipation rate of each condition was calculated. It was determined that as the relative jet strength increases, the vortex ring dissipates more rapidly and the energy dissipation rate increases. This information provides a basis for the understanding of a vortex ring’s interaction with an impinging jet. When the angle between the jet and vortex ring flows is perpendicular, the energy dissipation rate decreased from 6.1 W at the highest jet strength to 0.3 W at the lowest jet strength, while at an angle of 30° the energy dissipation rate decreased from 51.8 to 10.3 W. This finding contradicts the expected result, which potentiates further studies of various non-parallel arrangements.

Graphical Abstract


Non-parallel Vortex Jet Interaction Visualization 

Supplementary material

12650_2018_478_MOESM1_ESM.mp4 (11.4 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (MP4 11682 kb) ESM_1: Comparison of all three angles (ϴ) at the lowest jet strength (α = 0.50)
12650_2018_478_MOESM2_ESM.mp4 (7.8 mb)
Supplementary material 2 (MP4 7957 kb) ESM_2: Comparison of all three angles (ϴ) at the highest jet strength (α = 1.50)


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Copyright information

© The Visualization Society of Japan 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Samantha Houser
    • 1
  • Ikechukwu Okafor
    • 2
    • 3
  • Vrishank Raghav
    • 1
    • 4
  • Ajit Yoganathan
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical EngineeringGeorgia Institute of Technology, Emory UniversityAtlantaUSA
  2. 2.School of Chemical and Biomolecular EngineeringGeorgia Institute of TechnologyAtlantaUSA
  3. 3.Biomedical Engineering Practice, ExponentPhiladelphiaUSA
  4. 4.Department of Aerospace EngineeringAuburn UniversityAuburnUSA

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