The present work investigates the challenges in measuring the surface pressure distribution using particle image velocimetry (PIV) in comparison with pressure sensitive paint (PSP) measurements. The aim of the investigation is to assess if PIV may be regarded as a complementary method to PSP, or even as a possible replacement at least for 2D flow analysis or at low speed, where PSP fails. The investigation is based on two different test cases: (1) the attached flow around a NACA-0012 airfoil and (2) the separated flow around a backward-facing step (BFS). Both cases are investigated at transonic flow conditions. For the airfoil, both PIV and PSP measurements were conducted for a direct comparison. At such high Reynolds number, the boundary layer thickness is very small, and therefore, the pressure in the flow field outside the boundary layer can be easily determined from the velocity data with an isentropic flow assumption. The results of the PIV-based surface pressure reconstruction and the one of PSP are compared with the static pressure taps installed on the model surface. For the BFS test case, synthetic PIV images are produced from a Large Eddy Simulation (LES). In this case, flow separation as well as strong viscous effects appear which inhibit the use of the isentropic flow assumption. Therefore, the Reynold averaged momentum equation is directly used and the pressure is determined solving the Poisson equation which is obtained by applying the divergence operator to the momentum equation. The results are compared with the pressure distribution on the surface given by the LES simulation. This case aims to analyze the accuracy of PIV-based surface pressure determination in case of massive flow separation. It will be shown that the deviations to the expected results are caused by the spatially discretization as well as by spatially averaging, which occurs in a standard PIV measurement. In addition, the effect of the velocity uncertainty on the estimated surface pressure distribution biases the result significantly. This implies that PSP will be hardly replaced by PIV.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Bitter M, Scharnowski S, Hain R, Kähler CJ (2011) High-repetition-rate PIV investigations on a generic rocket model in sub-and supersonic flows. Exp Fluids 50(4):1019–1030
Bitter M, Hara T, Hain R, Yorita D, Asai K, Kähler CJ (2012) Characterization of pressure dynamics in an axisymmetric separating/reattaching flow using fast-responding pressure-sensitive paint. Exp Fluids 53(6):1737–1749
Bradshaw P, Wong FYF (1972) The reattachment and relaxation of a turbulent shear layer. J Fluid Mech 52(01):113–135
Charonko JJ, King CV, Smith BL, Vlachos PP (2010) Assessment of pressure field calculations from particle image velocimetry measurements. Meas Sci Technol 21(10):105401
Cierpka C, Scharnowski S, Kähler CJ (2013) Parallax correction for precise near-wall flow investigations using particle imaging. Appl Opt 52:2923–2931
de Kat R, Ganapathisubramani B (2013) Pressure from particle image velocimetry for convective flows: a Taylor’s hypothesis approach. Meas Sci Technol 24(2):024002
Eaton JK, Johnston JP (1981) A review of research on subsonic turbulent flow reattachment. AIAA J 19(9):1093–1100
Englisch H, Šeba P (1986) The stability of the Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions.Rep Math phys 23(3):341–348
Gouterman M, Callis J, Dalton L, Khalil G, Mébarki Y, Cooper KR, Grenier M (2004) Dual luminophor pressure-sensitive paint: III. Application to automotive model testing. Meas Sci Technol 15(10):1986
Kähler CJ (2009) High resolution measurements by long-range micro-PIV. In: Proceedings of VKI Lecture Series on Recent Advances in Particle Image Velocimetry
Kähler CJ, Scharnowski S, Cierpka C (2012a) On the resolution limit of digital particle image velocimetry. Exp Fluids 52:1629–1639
Kähler CJ, Scharnowski S, Cierpka C (2012b) On the uncertainty of digital PIV and PTV near walls. Exp Fluids 52:1641–1656
Klein C, Engler RH, Henne U, Sachs WE (2005) Application of pressure-sensitive paint for determination of the pressure field and calculation of the forces and moments of models in a wind tunnel. Exp Fluids 39(2):475–483
Liu X, Katz J (2006) Instantaneous pressure and material acceleration measurements using a four-exposure PIV system.Exp Fluids 41(2):227–240
Novara M, Schanz D, Reuther N, Kähler CJ, Schröder A (2016) Lagrangian 3D particle tracking in high-speed flows: shake-the-box for multi-pulse systems. Exp Fluids 57(8):128
Pastuhoff M, Tillmark N, Alfredsson PH (2016) Measuring surface pressure on rotating compressor blades using pressure sensitive paint. Sensors 16(3):344
Scharnowski S, Kähler CJ (2013) On the effect of curved streamlines on the accuracy of PIV vector fields. Exp Fluids 54:1435
Scharnowski S, Kähler CJ (2015) Investigation of a transonic separating/reattaching shear layer by means of PIV. Theor Appl Mech Lett 5(1):30–34
Scharnowski S, Kähler CJ (2016) Estimation and optimization of loss-of-pair uncertainties based on PIV correlation functions. Exp Fluids 57:23
Scharnowski S, Hain R, Kähler CJ (2012) Reynolds stress estimation up to single-pixel resolution using PIV-measurements. Exp Fluids 52:985–1002
Schneiders JFG, Dwight RP, Scarano F (2014) Time-supersampling of 3D-PIV measurements with vortex-in-cell simulation. Exp Fluids 55(3):1–15
Shiau C-C, Chen AF, Han J-C, Azad S, Lee C-P (2016) Full-scale turbine vane endwall film-cooling effectiveness distribution using pressure-sensitive paint technique. J Turbomach 138(5):051002
Souverein LJ, Van Oudheusden BW, Scarano F (2007) Particle image velocimetry based loads determination in supersonic flows. In: Pages 8–11 of: 45th AIAA aerospace sciences meeting
Statnikov V, Bolgar I, Scharnowski S, Meinke M, Kähler CJ, Schröder W (2016) Analysis of characteristic wake flow modes on a generic transonic backward-facing step configuration. Eur J Mech-B/Fluids 59:124–134
Van Oudheusden BW (2013) PIV-based pressure measurement. Meas Sci Technol 24(3):032001
Weiss P-É, Deck S, Robinet J-C, Sagaut P (20090) On the dynamics of axisymmetric turbulent separating/reattaching flows. Phys Fluids (1994-present) 21(7): 075103
About this article
Cite this article
Tagliabue, A., Scharnowski, S. & Kähler, C.J. Surface pressure determination: a comparison between PIV-based methods and PSP measurements. J Vis 20, 581–590 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12650-016-0406-2
- Pressure estimation
- Transonic flow