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Utilization of Processed Kola Nut Husk Meal in Poultry Production: Effects on The Performance, Carcass, Biochemical Indicators, and Antioxidant Enzymes of Broiler Chickens

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This study looked at the effects of processed kola nut husks meal (PKHM) utilization as a feed ingredient on broiler chicken in a 42-day feeding trial. Kola nut pod husks were processed into a PKHM using ash treatment and rumen liquor fermentation. Three experimental diets were developed at both the starter and finisher phases, with PKHM included at 0, 4, and 8%, and dubbed diets 1, 2, and 3, respectively. In a fully randomized design, 240 Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly assigned to three treatments (10 birds per replicate). Except for the significantly improved (P < 0.05) feed conversion ratio of broiler chickens fed diets 2 and 3 at the grower phase (22–42 days) and overall (0–42 days), the performance indices were not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by PKHM dietary inclusion. Broiler chicken carcass characteristics and relative internal organ weights remained constant (P > 0.05) through diets. The serum glutathione concentration in broiler chickens fed an 8 percent PKHM inclusive diet increased significantly (P < 0.05) than those on the control diet and 4 percent PKHM inclusive diet. When broiler chickens fed an 8 percent PKHM inclusive diet were compared to those fed a control diet, the serum catalase concentration was significantly higher (P < 0.05). The total serum protein, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate transferase, and cholesterol levels remained constant (P > 0.05) regardless of dietary treatment. Dietary PKHM inclusion of up to 8% enhanced improved feed efficiency and increased antioxidant enzyme concentration and did not affect the serum biochemical indices concentration.

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Data Availability

The datasets generated and analyzed during this study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.


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The author expresses his profound gratitude to the management of The Federal College of Agriculture, Akure, for allowing me to use the facilities in the Poultry Unit of the institution’s Teaching and Research Farm and Laboratory. Dr. Adeyeye S.A and Mr. Ayodele S.O are also appreciated for their technical support in carrying out the feeding trial. Thanks to Mrs. Oloruntola D.A for assisting in the birds’ blood analysis.


This research was not supported by any institution or other organization.

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OOD conceived, designed, supervised the experiment, did the data collection and statistical analysis, and wrote the article.

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Correspondence to Olugbenga David Oloruntola.

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This study was conducted according to the research ethics approved by the committee on research of the Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba Akoko, Nigeria.

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Oloruntola, O.D. Utilization of Processed Kola Nut Husk Meal in Poultry Production: Effects on The Performance, Carcass, Biochemical Indicators, and Antioxidant Enzymes of Broiler Chickens. Waste Biomass Valor 13, 3255–3263 (2022).

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