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Extraction of Cellulose Acetate from Cajuput (Melaleuca leucadendron) Twigs and Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) Bagasse by Environmentally Friendly Approach

Abstract

This study was carried out to investigate the extraction of cellulose acetate (CA) from cajuput (Melaleuca leucadendron) twigs and sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) bagasse using an environmentally friendly method. At first, cellulose was extracted from cajuput twigs (CT) and sugarcane bagasse (SB) through prehydrolysis followed by soda (NaOH) pulping and elemental chlorine-free (ECF) bleaching. Later, the extracted cellulose was acetylated using iodine (I) as a catalyst. The obtained CA was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and X-ray diffraction. FTIR and NMR analysis proved the replacement of free OH (hydroxyl) groups by acetyl groups. The degree of substitution (DS) showed the acetylation capability of cellulose extracted from CT and SB as well. The diameter of CA and its crystallinity index (CrI) were measured by SEM and X-ray diffraction, respectively. The cellulose content was 85.4 and 89.5% for CT and SB, respectively after the pulping and bleaching. The diameter of CA extracted from CT was approximately 10 μm and it was approximately 20 to 30 μm for SB. The CrI of the CA extracted from SB and CT was 75.6 and 60.2, respectively. Furthermore, the thermal gravimetric analysis showed that CA extracted from CT and SB was thermal resistant. Therefore, CT and SB will be potential alternative resources for CA production using the mentioned method.

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Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge the Ministry of Research, Technology, and Higher Education of The Republic of Indonesia for the research grant Incentive Research National Innovation System batch I, 2019.

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R.M. is the main contributor and corresponding author, conceptualized the study, performed pretreatment and study analysis results for HNMR and SEM, while M, ET, and HP performed the other experiments. O.O. and A.K.D. had revised and finalized it. YS supervised the study.

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Correspondence to Roni Maryana.

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Maryana, R., Muryanto, Triwahyuni, E. et al. Extraction of Cellulose Acetate from Cajuput (Melaleuca leucadendron) Twigs and Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) Bagasse by Environmentally Friendly Approach. Waste Biomass Valor (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12649-021-01610-y

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Keywords

  • Cellulose acetate
  • Cajuput twig
  • Sugarcane bagasse
  • Prehydrolysis
  • Acetylation