Heterogeneous Thermoset/Thermoplastic Recycled Carbon Fiber Composite Materials for Second-Generation Composites

Abstract

With an increase in the use of carbon fiber composites in the aerospace and automobile industry a collateral issue of what to do with end-of-life carbon fiber composites has risen. In this study, we successfully developed a second-generation composite using a heterogenous mixture of thermoset and thermoplastic recycled carbon fiber composites (CFCs). The recovered vinyl ester and epoxy CFCs (thermosets) were characterized using thermogravimetric analysis. Adhesive performance was evaluated through double lap shear tests by melt-bonding a thermoplastic polyether ether ketone (PEEK) CFC to either the thermoset epoxy or vinyl ester CFC. The waste carbon fiber composites were also mechanically milled and classified through screening techniques. The resulting milled materials were used to form and produce composite panels through high temperature compression molding. The influence of particle size and platen temperature were evalauted through mechanical testing. Results indicate that melt-bonding with the vinyl ester/CFC exhibited significantly higher lap shear strength values than that between epoxy/CFC and PEEK. Findings also show that adding thermoset CFCs to the thermoplastic system (PEEK) enhanced the flexural properties of composites.

Graphic Absract

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9

Date availability statement

The raw/processed data required to reproduce these findings cannot be shared at this time due to legal or ethical reasons.

References

  1. 1.

    Fitzer, E.: Carbon. 27, 62 (1989)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Jarrah, M., et al.: The effect of elevated temperatures on the tensile performance of GFRP and CFRP sheets. Constr. Build. Mater. 190, 38–52 (2018)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Mamanpush, S.H., et al.: Recycled wind turbine blades as a feedstock for second generation composites. Waste Manag. 76, 708–714 (2018)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Mamanpush, S.H., et al.: Extruded fiber-reinforced composites manufactured from recycled wind turbine blade material. Waste Biomass Valoriz. 11, 3853–3862 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12649-019-00659-0

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Sherwood, P.M.A.: Surface analysis of carbon and carbon fibers for composites. Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena. 81, 319–342 (1996)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Li, H., Englund, K.: Recycling of carbon fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composite wastes from the aerospace industry. J. Compos. Mater. 51(9), 1265–1273 (2017)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Li, J., Xu, P.L., et al.: A promising strategy for chemical recycling of carbon fiber/thermoset composites: self-accelerating decomposition in a mild oxidative system. Green Chem. 14, 3260–3263 (2012)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Liu, Y., Liu, J., et al.: Chemical recycling of carbon fiber reinforced epoxy resin composites in subcritical water: synergistic effect of phenol and KOH on the decomposition efficiency. Polym. Degrad. Stab. 97, 214–220 (2012)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Onwudili, J.A., Insura, N., Williams, P.T.: Autoclave pyrolysis of carbon reinforced composite plastic waste for carbon fiber and chemicals recovery. J. Energy Inst. 86, 227–232 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Ramakrishna, S., Tan, W.K., et al.: Recycling of carbon fiber/PEEK composites. Key Eng. Mater. 137, 1–8 (1997)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Phoenix Fiberglass Inc: Fiberglass composite recycling: report. Ministry of Environment and Energy, Ontario (1994)

    Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    The European Commission for the Environment. The European Commission for the Environment W (Accessed 26 January 2016)

  13. 13.

    Rodin, H., et al.: Recycled glass fiber reinforced polymer composites incorporated in mortar for improved mechanical performance. Constr. Build. Mater. 187, 738–751 (2018)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Martine, D., Chazerain, A.L., et al.: Characterization of resistance-welded thermoplastic composite double-lap joints under static and fatigue loading. J. Thermoplast. Compos. Mater. 28(6), 762–776 (2015)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Method of Determining and Expressing Fineness of Feed Materials by Sieving. ANSI/ASAE S319.3 FEB03

  16. 16.

    Hong-Gang, Z., et al.: Thermal performance and flame retardancy studies of vinyl ester and glass fiber reinforced plastic composites containing nanoclay. J. Compos. Mater. 48(2), 165–177 (2014)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Chatterjee, A.: Thermal degradation analysis of thermoset resins. Published online 23 June 2009 in Wiley Inter Science www.interscience.wiley.com

  18. 18.

    Stokes-Griffin, C.M., Compston, P.: Investigation of sub-melt temperature bonding of carbon-fiber/PEEK in an automated laser tape placement process. Compos. Part A. 84, 17–25 (2016)

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Funding

The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: The authors gratefully appreciate the financial support by the Joint Center for Aerospace Technology Innovation, Triumph Group and Zoltek Corporation. Thermoset CFCs were obtained from Zoltek Corporation (Bridgeton, MO, USA) and the PEEK/CFC were donated by Triumph Composites (Spokane, WA).

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Seyed Hossein Mamanpush.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The author(s) declared no potential conflicts of interest with respect to the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Mamanpush, S.H., Li, H., Tabatabaei, A.T. et al. Heterogeneous Thermoset/Thermoplastic Recycled Carbon Fiber Composite Materials for Second-Generation Composites. Waste Biomass Valor (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12649-021-01341-0

Download citation

Keywords

  • Recycling
  • Carbon fiber composite
  • Thermoset composite