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Combined Impact of Ultrasound Pre-treatment and Hydrodistillation on Bioactive Compounds and GC–MS Analysis of Cinnamomum cassia Bark Extract


The extraction of concentrated volatile oils from various plant species is generally carried out by hydrodistillation technique. However, this hydrodistillation technique is expensive owing to more solvent and energy consumption. In this study, effect of ultrasonic pre-treatment prior to hydrodistillation on extraction of Cinnamomum cassia bark oil was evaluated. Process variables for extraction were optimized by Taguchi method. Results revealed that ultrasound pre-treatment hydrodistillation (UAHD) can enhance the yield of the extracted oil when compared with conventional hydrodistillation (HD) technique. To predict the yield of the extracted essential oil significant mathematical model was developed. Optimum parameters were determined according to the mathematical model they were: solid loading 25 g, ultrasound power 600 W, extraction time 35 min, and solvent quantity 100 ml. Further, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) results of C. cassia bark oil revealed that UAHD produced more oxygenated compounds than HD extraction method. In addition, UAHD was found to be less energy consuming and environmentally safer than HD extraction method. Moreover, FT-IR spectra indicate that the effect of UAHD extraction method released all the volatile compounds from treated C. cassia bark powder. Finally, the optimum parameters were confirmed by the experiments performed, in which the yield of the oil of 3.17% was obtained. This study demonstrated that ultrasound pre-treatment prior to hydrodistillation could be useful to extract bioactive compounds with reduction in extraction time for extraction of C. cassia bark oil.

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The research work reported in this paper was funded by Vishwakarma Government Engineering College, Ahmedabad, India. The authors are grateful to Dr Kamlesh Gurjar from the Department of Chemical Engineering, Vishwakarma Government Engineering College for their assistance with FTIR, and Analytical NFDD team from Centre of Excellence in Drug Discovery Rajkot, India for their assistance with GS-MS analysis.

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Correspondence to Pooja Takkalkar or Sabzoi Nizamuddin or N. M. Mubarak.

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Jadhav, H., Jadhav, A., Morabiya, Y. et al. Combined Impact of Ultrasound Pre-treatment and Hydrodistillation on Bioactive Compounds and GC–MS Analysis of Cinnamomum cassia Bark Extract. Waste Biomass Valor 12, 807–821 (2021).

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  • Essential oil
  • GC–MS
  • UAHD
  • Cinnamomum cassia oil
  • Single factor experiment
  • Taguchi method