Production of Bio-based Polyol from Oxypropylated Pyrolytic Lignin for Rigid Polyurethane Foam Application

Abstract

A recent trend in ecofriendly product development is the use of added-value lignin residues. This study aimed to assess the potential use of pyrolytic lignin (PL) for producing rigid polyurethane foam (RPUF). For this purpose, PL was recovered from bio-oil using water as extraction solvent. The PL was then subjected to oxypropylation in the presence of KOH and under mild temperature and pressure (482 K; 14 Bar). FTIR and hydroxyl number quantification was used to confirm and assess the occurrence of oxypropylation reaction. Thus, oxypropylated lignin (OL) was successfully used to produce RPUF. Results revealed a lignin recovery yield of 30 ± 4% relative to the bio-oil weight. FTIR and NMR showed that the PL retained its aromatic structure after pyrolysis cracking. The weight ratio obtained after oxypropylation was 50/50/5 lignin/propylene oxide/KOH with a hydroxyl number of 703 mg KOH/g. Gradual substitution of polyol with OL ranged from 10 to 50%, and the ensuing foams were characterized in terms of chemical, physical, and morphological properties. Modulus of elasticity and insulation performance of 20% OL-based foam increased by 17% and 5.5%, respectively, compared to the commercial rigid polyurethane foam (CRPUF). SEM micrographs for OL-based polyurethane foams showed smaller cell structure, which is desirable for increasing rigidity. These findings demonstrate the potential use of pyrolytic lignin in the manufacturing of high performance biobased insulation materials.

Graphic Abstract

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Abbreviations

ASTM:

American Society for Testing and Materials

CRPUF:

Commercial rigid polyurethane foam

DTG:

Derivative thermogravimetry

FTIR:

Fourier Transform InfraRed Spectroscopy

FTIR-ATR:

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflection

KOH:

Potassium hydroxide

LS:

LignoSulfonate

LSPUF:

Lignosulfonate-based polyurethane foam

NaOH:

Sodium hydroxide

NMR:

Nuclear magnetic resonance

OL:

Oxypropylated lignin

OLPUF:

Oxypropylated lignin-based polyurethane foam

PL:

Pyrolytic lignin

PPO:

Propylene oxide

PU:

Polyurethane

RPU:

Rigid polyurethane

RPUF:

Rigid polyurethane foam

SEM:

Scanning electron microscopy

TGA:

Thermogravimetric analysis

TG:

Thermogravimetry

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Acknowledgements

Sincere thanks are due to the National Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (Project Number: 499133), the Centre Technologique des Résidus Industriels, the Chaire de Recherche de la Valorisation de la Caractérisation et de la Transformation du Bois, EnerLab, and AbriTech for their in-kind and financial contribution, which enabled us to conduct this study. The authors gratefully acknowledge the assistance of Gilles Villeneuve during the experiments. The views and opinions expressed in this paper are those of the authors.

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Correspondence to Flavia Lega Braghiroli.

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Saffar, T., Bouafif, H., Braghiroli, F.L. et al. Production of Bio-based Polyol from Oxypropylated Pyrolytic Lignin for Rigid Polyurethane Foam Application. Waste Biomass Valor 11, 6411–6427 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12649-019-00876-7

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Keywords

  • Bio-sourced materials
  • Rigid polyurethane foams
  • Bio-based polyol
  • Pyrolytic bio-oil
  • Pyrolytic lignin
  • Oxypropylation