Characterization of Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) Biodiesel Blends with Euro Diesel, Butanol and Diethyl Ether Using FT-IR, UV–Vis, TGA and DSC Techniques

  • M. N. MohammedEmail author
  • A. E. Atabani
  • Gediz Uguz
  • Chyi-How Lay
  • Gopalakrishnan Kumar
  • R. R. Al-Samaraae
Original Paper


Blending biodiesel–diesel blends with alternative fuels such as butanol and diethyl ether becomes an interesting area of research. Butanol is becoming a popular fuel due to its renewable nature and superior properties compared to ethanol. Diethyl ether can be considered as a renewable fuel as it can be produced from bioethanol through easy dehydration process. This paper aims to study the physicochemical properties of biodiesel produced from Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) and its blends with Euro diesel, butanol and diethyl ether. Furthermore, characterizations such as DSC, FT-IR, UV–Vis and TGA were also analyzed. Most of the properties of biodiesel satisfy EN 14214 and ASTM D6751 standards except iodine value and oxidation stability due to the high degree of unsaturation (128.549). Blending of hemp biodiesel with Euro diesel, butanol and diethyl ether improved the cold flow properties, kinematic viscosity and density. However, flash point decreased dramatically specially when blending with diethyl ether due to its low flash point. Therefore, care should be taken when handling or transporting biodiesel–diesel–diethyl ether blends. This work supports that blending Hemp methyl ester with Euro diesel, butanol and diethyl ether as ternary blends (up to 20%) can be considered as alternatives to fossil diesel in CI diesel engines. Therefore, it is recommended that engine, emissions and combustion characteristics of all blends shall be further investigated.


Hemp methyl ester Butanol Diethyl ether Biodiesel–diesel–diethyl ether blend Biodiesel–diesel–butanol blend Characterization using FT-IR TGA and DSC techniques 



Percentage of fatty acid






Crude hemp oil


Cetane number




Diethyl ether


Differential scanning calorimetry


Degree of unsaturation


Fatty acid composition


Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy


Higher heating value


Hemp methyl ester


Iodine value


Long chain saturated factor


Molecular weight of fatty acid


No of double bonds of fatty acid




Oxidation stability


Saponification number


Thermogravimetric analysis


Ultraviolet visible spectroscopy



The authors would like to acknowledge Erciyes University, Kayseri, Turkey for the financial support under FOA-2015-5790 project and KİTAM, Ondokuz Mayis University, Samsun, Turkey for Thermogravimetric analysis.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. N. Mohammed
    • 1
    Email author
  • A. E. Atabani
    • 1
  • Gediz Uguz
    • 2
  • Chyi-How Lay
    • 3
  • Gopalakrishnan Kumar
    • 4
  • R. R. Al-Samaraae
    • 1
  1. 1.Energy Division, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringErciyes UniversityKayseriTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Chemical EngineeringOndokuz Mayis UniversitySamsunTurkey
  3. 3.General Education/Green Energy Development Centre/Master’s Program of Green Energy Science and TechnologyFeng Chia UniversitySeatwenTaiwan, ROC
  4. 4.School of Civil and Environmental EngineeringYonsei UniversitySeoulRepublic of Korea

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