Advertisement

Valorization of Grapefruit Seeds: Cold Press Oil Production

  • Emin Yilmaz
  • Buket Aydeniz Guneser
  • Selçuk Ok
Original Paper
  • 52 Downloads

Abstract

Purpose

The aims of this study were valorization of grapefruit seeds by producing oil with cold press technique and characterization of the obtained oils.

Methods

Control group and enzyme treated seeds were cold pressed in laboratory scale machine, and common physicochemical properties, fatty acid, sterol, tocopherol, flavonoid, phenolic acid, pigment, volatile aromatics compositions of the oils were determined in addition to their sensory descriptive analyses.

Results

It was shown that the oil contains linoleic acid (40%), β-sitosterol (80%) and α-tocopherol (220–320 mg/kg oil) as the major components. Naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, rutin as prominent flavonoids; tr-ferulic and gallic acids as dominant phenolic acids were quantified. Furthermore 26 different (d-limonene, furfural, 3-methylbutanal etc.) volatile aromatics were determined. The oils are shown to be bioactives and aromatics rich samples, but they have strong bitter and astringent taste.

Conclusions

Hence, the oil could only be used to enrich other edible oils and foods for functional purposes, and could be utilised for cosmetic, chemical, energy and other purposes.

Graphical Abstract

Keywords

Grapefruit seed Enzyme treatment Cold pressing Bioactives Aromatics 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This study was funded by the TUBITAK (The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey), Project No: COST 114O876. The authors thank for the fund. We would like to thank also Frigo-Pak Food Co. (Bursa, Turkey) for supplying the grapefruit seeds used in the study.

References

  1. 1.
    Bachman, J.: Small-scale oilseed processing-value added and processing guide. ATTRA (appropriate technology transfer for rural area), pp. 1–24 (2001)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Williams, M.A.: Obtaining oils and fats from source material. In: Hui, Y.H. (ed.) Bailey’s Industrial Oil and Fat Products, pp. 61–1156. Wiley, New York (2005)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Aydeniz, B., Güneşer, O., Yılmaz, E.: Physico-chemical, sensory and aromatic properties of cold press produced safflower oil. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 91(1), 99–110 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dündar Emir, D., Yılmaz, E.: Effects of roasting and enzyme pretreatments on yield and quality of cold-pressed poppy seed oils. Turk. J. Agric. For. 39, 260–271 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Yilmaz, E., Aydeniz, B., Güneşer, O., Arsunar, E.S.: Sensory and physico-chemical properties of cold press-produced tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) seed oils. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 92(6), 833–842 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yılmaz, E., Arsunar, E.S., Aydeniz, B., Güneşer, O.: Cold pressed capia pepperseed (Capsicum Annuum L.) oils: Composition, aroma, and sensory properties. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 117(7), 1016–1026 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Grajzer, M., Prescha, A., Korzonek, K., Wojakowska, A., Dziadas, M., Kulma, A., Grajeta, H.: Characteristics of rose hip (Rosa canina L.) cold-pressed oil and its oxidative stability studied by the differential scanning calorimetry method. Food Chem. 188, 459–466 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Anonymous: Turunçgiller. Ankara-TURKEY: Turkish Statistical Institute (2014). http://www.tuik.gov.tr. Accessed 15 Jan 2017
  9. 9.
    Teles, F.F.F., Whiting, F.M., Brown, W.H., Stull, J.W.: Triglyceride fatty acids of Arizona grapefruit seed oil. J. Food Sci. 37(2), 331–332 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Barroso, M.A.T., Moura Fe, J.A., Whiting, F.M., Brown, W.H., Stull, J.W.: Grapefruit seed oil sterols. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 49(1), 85–86 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Habib, M.A., Hammam, M.A., Sakr, A.A., Ashoush, Y.A.: Chemical evaluation of egyptian citrus seeds as potential sources of vegetable oils. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 63(9), 1192–1196 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Anwar, F., Naseer, R., Bhanger, M.I., Ashraf, S., Talpur, F.N., Aladedunye, F.A.: Physico-chemical characteristics of citrus seeds and seed oils from Pakistan. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 85(4), 321–330 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    AOAC: Official methods of analysis, method 920.39. Crude fat & oil. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Inc., Arlington (2005)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    AOCS: Official methods and recommended practices of the American Oil Chemists’ Society. AOCS Press, Champaign (1997)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    ISO: Animal and vegetable fats and oils—determination of unsaponifiable matter—method using diethyl ether extraction. International Organisation for Standardisation, Geneva (2000)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    ISO 12228: Animal and vegetable fats and oils—determination of individual and total sterols contents, gas chromatographic method. International Organisation for Standardisation, Geneva (1999)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Grilo, E.C., Costa, P.N., Gurgel, C.S.S., Beserra, A.F.d.L., Almeida, F.N.d.S., Dimenstein, R.: Alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol concentration in vegetable oils. Food Sci. Technol. (Campinas) 34, 379–385 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Moulehi, I., Bourgou, S., Ourghemmi, I., Tounsi, M.S.: Variety and ripening impact on phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of mandarin (Citrus reticulate Blanco) and bitter orange (Citrus aurantium L.) seeds extracts. Ind. Crops. Prod. 39, 74–80 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    García-Villalba, R., Carrasco-Pancorbo, A., Zurek, G., Behrens, M., Bäßmann, C., Segura-Carretero, A., Fernández-Gutiérrez, A.: Nano and rapid resolution liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry to identify and quantify phenolic compounds in olive oil. J. Sep. Sci. 33(14), 2069–2078 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Franke, S., Fröhlich, K., Werner, S., Böhm, V., Schöne, F.: Analysis of carotenoids and vitamin E in selected oilseeds, press cakes and oils. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 112(10), 1122–1129 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Krist, S., Stuebiger, G., Bail, S., Unterweger, H.: Detection of adulteration of poppy seed oil with sunflower oil based on volatiles and triacylglycerol composition. J. Agric. Food Chem. 54, 6385–6389 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pawliszyn, J.: Theory of solid-phase microextraction. In: Pawliszyn, J. (ed.) Handbook of Solid Phase Microextraction, pp. 13–59. Elsevier, Oxford (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    NIST, NIST/EPA/NIH Mass Spectral Library: National Institute of Standards and Technology Standard Reference Data Program, MD 20899, Gaithersburg (2008)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    McLafferty, F.: Wiley Registry of Mass Spectral Data. 7th edn. CD-ROM (2005) ISBN 978-0471473251Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Minitab, M.S.: Software (Version 16.1.1. Minitab, Inc., State College (2010)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    SPSS: SPSS Professional Statistics (Version 10,1. SPSS Inc., Chicago (1994)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    El-Adawy, T.A., El-Bedawy, A.A., Rahma, E.H., Gafar, A.M.: Properties of some citrus seeds. Part 3. Evaluation as a new source of protein and oil. Food/Nahrung 43(6), 385–391 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    TFC: Codex Standard for Named Vegetable Oils, CX-STAN 210. Turkish Food Codex, Ankara (1999)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Malacrida, C.R., Kimura, M., Jorge, N.: Phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of citrus seed oils. Food Sci. Technol. Res. 18(3), 399–404 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Matthaus, B., Özcan, M.: Chemical evaluation of citrus seeds, an agro-industrial waste, as a new potential source of vegetable oils. Grasas Aceites 63(3), 313–320 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Russo, M., Bonaccorsi, I., Torre, G., Sarò, M., Dugo, P., Mondello, L.: Underestimated sources of flavonoids, limonoids and dietary fibre: Availability in lemon’s by-products. J. Funct. Foods 9, 18–26 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mir, I.A., Tiku, A.B.: Chemopreventive and therapeutic potential of “naringenin,” a flavanone present in citrus fruits. Nutr. Cancer 67(1), 27–42 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Giménez-Bastida, J., González-Sarrías, A., Vallejo, F., Espín, J., Tomás-Barberán, F.: Hesperetin and its sulfate and glucuronide metabolites inhibit TNF-α induced human aortic endothelial cell migration and decrease plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels. Food Funct. 7, 118–126 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Armando, C., Maythe, S., Beatriz, N.P.: Antioxidant activity of grapefruit seed extract on vegetable oils. J. Sci. Food Agric. 77(4), 463–467 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bocco, A., Cuvelier, M., Richard, H., Berset, C.: Antioxidant Activity and phenolic composition of citrus peel and seed extracts. J. Agric. Food Chem. 46, 2123–2129 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Tzou-Chi, H.: Biosynthesis of natural aroma compounds. In: Hui, Y. (ed.) Handbook of Food Science, Technology, and Engineering—4 Volume Set. CRC Press, Boca Raton (2005)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kirbaşlar, ŞI., Boz, I., Kirbaşlar, F.G.: Composition of Turkish lemon and grapefruit peel oils. J. Essent. Oil Res. 18(5), 525–543 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Viuda-Martos, M., Ruiz-Navajas, Y., Fernández-López, J., Pérez-Álvarez, J.A.: Chemical composition of mandarin (C. reticulata L.), grapefruit (C. paradisi L.), lemon (C. limon L.) and orange (C. sinensis L.) essential oils. J. Essent. Oil Bear. Plants 12(2), 236–243 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Öğütçü, M., Mendeş, M., Yılmaz, E.: Sensorial and physico-chemical characterization of virgin olive oils produced in Çanakkale. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 85(5), 441–456 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Emin Yilmaz
    • 1
  • Buket Aydeniz Guneser
    • 1
  • Selçuk Ok
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringÇanakkale Onsekiz Mart UniversityÇanakkaleTurkey

Personalised recommendations