The Antioxidant and Enzyme Inhibitory Activity of Balsam Fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) Bark Solvent Extracts and Pyrolysis Oil

Abstract

Wood waste from forestry practices offers an inexpensive source of biomass that can be converted into bioenergy, fuels and value-added chemicals. Balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) bark offers a source of bioactive natural products, such as lignans, separated through solvent extraction (SE). The objectives of the research were: (1) to compare traditional solvent with supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and slow pyrolysis processes to separate and convert chemicals from the bark and (2) to assess the biological activity of the extracts and pyrolysis oils. In vitro biochemical assays were used to measure antioxidant and oxygen radical-scavenging abilities, and glutathione S-transferase and esterase enzyme inhibition. The pyrolysis oil had similar anti-oxidant, radical-scavenging ability and enzyme inhibitory activity to the SE and SFE extracts. Fractionation and mass spectrometry identified catechol and p-coumaryl alcohol in the organic phase of pyrolysis oil. The small phenolic compounds identified offer starting materials for pharmaceutical or insecticide synergist application.

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Abbreviations

SE:

Solvent extraction

SFE:

Supercritical fluid extraction

RPO:

Raw pyrolysis oil

GST:

Glutathione S-transferase

MAO:

Monoamine oxidase

GAD:

Glutamic acid decarboxylase

MFR:

Mechanically fluidized reactor

CPB:

Colorado potato beetle

DEF:

S, S, S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate

DCM:

Dichloromethane

DEM:

Diethyl maleate

DPPH:

1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical

α-NA:

α-naphthyl acetate

CDNB:

1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene

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Acknowledgements

We recognize the technical support from Dr. Paul A. Charpentier, Western University, supercritical fluid extraction,Tim McDowell, AAFC London, GC-MS analysis and Igor Lalin, AAFC London, CPB rearing. We also thank Dr. John T. Arnason, University of Ottawa, for providing the plant material. This research was partially supported by funding from the China Scholarship Council (CSC), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31470630), the Science and Technology Innovation from ShanXi Agriculture University (2016YJ14) and Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada.

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Correspondence to Ian M. Scott.

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Wang, Z., Cáceres, L.A., Hossain, M.M. et al. The Antioxidant and Enzyme Inhibitory Activity of Balsam Fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.) Bark Solvent Extracts and Pyrolysis Oil. Waste Biomass Valor 10, 3295–3306 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12649-018-00551-3

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Keywords

  • Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.
  • Solvent extraction
  • Supercritical fluid extraction
  • Pyrolysis
  • Glutathione S-transferase inhibition
  • Esterase inhibition
  • Antioxidant activity