Experimental Studies on Utilization of Prunus armeniaca L. (Wild Apricot) Biodiesel as an Alternative Fuel for CI Engine

Original Paper


In present research work, Prunus armeniaca L. (Wild Apricot) Seed oil has been investigated to produce biodiesel. The free fatty acid (FFA) content of the Prunus armeniaca oil (PAO) was <2%, so a single stage alkali catalyzed transesterification process was used to produce Prunus armeniaca methyl ester (PAME). The transesterification was conducted using optimum condition of 1% (w/w) potassium hydroxide as catalyst, 55 °C reaction temperature and 60 min reaction time with constant stirring at 400 rpm. Transesterification process gave a maximum yield of 96.5% by weight of Prunus armeniaca biodiesel. Fuel properties determined in the study conform to standards set for the ASTM D6751 and EN 14214. PAME exhibited a satisfying oxidative stability of 6.3 h and high cetane number (58.7) compared to petrodiesel (49.7). The experiments were conducted using various blends (B5, B10, B20 and B30) of the methyl ester of PAO with diesel in a single cylinder, four strokes, and direct injection diesel engine. The test results show that the brake thermal efficiency (BTE), in general, was found to be decreased and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) increased with increased volume fraction of P. armeniaca biodiesel (PAME) in the blends. A marginally higher BTE and lower BSFC noticed for B5 blend than diesel. At higher load conditions, CO, UHC and smoke opacity were found lower for all PAME blends in comparison to neat diesel. The NOx emissions were found to be increased for PAME based fuel in comparison to neat diesel. It may be concluded from the experimental investigations that PAME, can be an alternative for petrodiesel that can be used in a diesel engine without any major modification in the engine.


Prunus armeniaca L. oil Prunus armeniaca methyl ester (PAME) Transesterification Physico-chemical characteristics Engine performance and emission 


  1. 1.
    Agarwal, A.K., Gupta, T., Shukla, P.C., Dhar, A.: Particulate emissions from biodiesel Fuelled CI engines. Energy Convers. Manage. 94, 311–330 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ashraful, A.M., Masjuki, H.H., Kalam, M.A., Fattah Rizwanul, I.M., Imtenan, S., Shahir, S.A., Mobarak, H.M.: Production and comparison of fuel properties, engine performance and emission characteristics of biodiesel from various non-edible vegetable oils: a review. Energy Convers. Manage. 80, 202–228 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Atabani, A.E., Silitonga, A.S.: Non-edible vegetable oils: a critical evaluation of oil extraction fatty acid compositions, biodiesel production, characteristics, engine performance and emissions production. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 18, 211–245 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bankovic, I.B., Stamenkovic, O.S., Veljkovic, V.B.: Biodiesel production from nonedible plant oils. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 16, 3621–3647 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cheikh, K., Sary, A., Khaled, L., Abdelkrim, L., Mohand, T.: Experimental assessment of performance and emissions maps for biodiesel-fueled compression ignition engine. Appl. Energy. 161, 320–329 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dhar, A., Agarwal, A.K.: Performance, emissions and combustion characteristics of Karanja biodiesel in a transportation engine. Fuel 119, 70–80 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Katea, A.E., Lohanib, U.C., Pandeyc, J.P., Shahid, N.C., Sarkar, A.: Traditional and mechanical method of the oil extraction from wild apricot kernel: a comparative study. Res. J. Chem. Environ. Sci. 2, 54–60 (2014)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Knothe, G.: Biodiesel derived from a model oil enriched in palmitoleic acid, macadamia nut oil. Energy Fuels 24, 2098–2103 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Maleki, E., Aroua, M.K., Sulaiman N.M.N.: the Improved yield of solvent free enzymatic methanolysis of palm and jatropha oils blended with castor oil. Appl Energy 104, 905–909 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mofijur, M., Masjuki, H.H., Kalam, M.A., Atabani, A.E.: Evaluation of biodiesel blending, engine performance and emissions characteristics of Jatropha curcas methyl ester: Malaysian perspective. Energy 55, 879–887 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mohammed, J., Atuman, J.S., Ugwu, E., Aboje, A.A.: Production and characterization of biodiesel from jatropha oil and neem oil. Int. J. Emerg. Trends Eng. Develop. 2, 313–320 (2012)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ong, H.C., Masjuki, H.H., Mahlia T.M.I., Silitonga, A.S., Chong, W.T., Leong, K.Y.: Optimization of biodiesel production and engine performance from high free fatty acid Calophyllum inophyllum oil in CI diesel engine. Energy Convers. Manage. 81, 30–40 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Raheman, H., Ghadge, S.V.: Performance of compression ignition engine with mahua (Madhuca indica) biodiesel. Fuel 86, 2568–2573 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sahoo, P.K., Das, L.M.: Process optimization for biodiesel production from Jatropha, Karanja and Polanga oils. Fuel 88, 1588–1594 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Satyarthi, J.K., Srinivas, D., Ratnasamy, P.: Estimation of free fatty acid content in oils, fats, and biodiesel by 1-H NMR spectroscopy. Energy Fuels. 23, 2273–2277 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sharma, R., Gupta, A., Abrol, G.S., Joshi, V. K.: Value addition of wild apricot fruits grown in North-West Himalayan regions: a review. J. Food Sci. Technol. (2012). doi  10.1007/s13197-012-0766-0 Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Yan, Y., Li, X., Wang, G., Gui, X., Li, G., Su, F.: Biotechnological preparation of biodiesel and its high-valued derivatives: a review. Appl Energy. 113, 1614–1631 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yadav, A.K., Khan, M.E., Pal, A.: Biodiesel production from oleander (Thevetia Peruviana) oil and its performance testing on a diesel engine. Korean J. 34, 340–345 (2017)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yadav, A.K., Khan, M.E., Pal, A.: Kaner biodiesel production through hybrid reactor and its performance testing on a CI engine at different compression ratios. Egypt. J. Pet. (2016).  10.1016/j.ejpe.2016.07.006 Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yaakob, Z., Narayanan, B.N., Padikkaparambil, S., Unni, K.S., Akbar, P.M.: A review on the oxidation stability of biodiesel. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 35, 136–153 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ashok Kumar Yadav
    • 1
  • Amit Pal
    • 2
  • Alok Manas Dubey
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringRaj Kumar Goel Institute of TechnologyGhaziabadIndia
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringDelhi Technological UniversityDelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations