Effect of Nitrosomonas europaea Bio-Seed Addition on the Fate of Carbon and Nitrogen Compounds in Human Feces
- 180 Downloads
One of the most important roles of the resource-oriented sanitation (ROS) systems is handling source-separated human sanitary wastes so that they can be utilized for other purposes. Usually, these systems are constructed to use the source-separated feces as fertilizers or soil conditioners. However, there are some challenges with these systems, such as their high volume, low degradation rate, and lack of fertility management. To overcome these challenges and manage source-separated human feces more efficiently in ROS systems, utilizing nitrifying microorganisms is useful. Since the presence of both carbon and nitrogen compounds is essential for keeping these microorganisms active, and the feces contains plenty of carbon and nitrogen, higher growth rates of nitrifying microorganisms can be achieved for biodegrading the feces and modifying its fertility. In this study, the fate of carbon and nitrogen compounds in the presence of Nitrosomonas europaea bio-seeds was investigated. The results show that adding bio-seeds leads to better feces degradation. Moreover, the addition of bio-seeds can increase the fertilization capacity of feces for use as a fertilizer or soil conditioner, by reducing ammonia loss and providing a more variable nitrogen composition. This approach can be useful for handling source-separated human feces in ROS system practices.
KeywordsFeces management and utilization Fertility Nitrosomonas europaea Resource oriented sanitation Source separated feces
This research was supported by Institute of Construction and Environmental Engineering at Seoul National University. The authors wish to express their gratitude for the support. Furthermore, this work is financially supported by Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) as Eco-Innovation project (413-111-008), Advanced Industrial Technology Development project (2014000150010) and Waste to Energy · Recycling Human Resource Development project.
- 1.Hashemi, S., Han, M., Kim, T., Kim, Y.: Innovative toilet technologies for smart and green cities. In: Proceedings of the 8th Conference of the International Forum on Urbanism (IFoU), Incheon, Korea, June 22–24 (2015). doi: 10.3390/ifou-E013
- 5.Lopez Zavala, M.A., Funamizu, N., Takakuwa, T.: Onsite wastewater differentiable treatment system: modelling approach. Water Sci. Technol. 46(6–7), 317–324 (2002)Google Scholar
- 7.European Commission.: Regulation (EC) No 2003/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 13 October 2003 relating to fertilizers. Off. J. Eur. Commun. L304, 1–194 (2003)Google Scholar
- 9.Texier, A.C., Zepeda, A., Gómez, J., Cuervo-López, F.: Simultaneous elimination of carbon and nitrogen compounds of petrochemical effluents by nitrification and denitrification. In: Patel, V. (eds.) Petrochemicals, pp. 101–134. InTech, Rijeka (2012)Google Scholar
- 13.Shier, D., Butler, J., Lewis, R.: Hole’s human anatomy & physiology. McGraw-Hill, New York (2007)Google Scholar
- 14.Leslie Grady Jr, C.P., Lim, H.C.: Biological wastewater treatment. Marcel Dekker, New York (1980)Google Scholar
- 16.US Environmental Protection Agency: Methods for chemical analysis of water and wastes. US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC (1983)Google Scholar
- 17.Sikora, L.J., Stott, D.E.: Soil organic carbon and nitrogen. In: Doran, J.W., Jones, A.J. (eds.) Methods for assessing soil quality, pp. 157–167. Soil Science Society of America Special Publication, Madison (1996)Google Scholar
- 18.American Public Health Association/American Water Works Association/ Water Environment Federation: Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. American Public Health Association/American Water Works Association/Water Environment Federation, Washington DC (2012)Google Scholar