Protein Enrichment of Sweet Potato Beverage Residues Mixed with Peanut Shells by Aspergillus oryzae and Bacillus subtilis Using Central Composite Design
- 122 Downloads
The present study aimed at reducing the pollution of the waste generated by the sweet potato beverage industry to the environment and transforming the residues mixed with peanut shells into biomass protein to be used as animal feed.
Six different microbial strains were evaluated for their ability to produce true protein using the mixed substrates as a nature medium under solid-state fermentation.
The experimental results revealed that the highest true protein content was obtained when the substrates were fermented with a combination of Aspergillus oryzae and Bacillus subtilis. The optimal process parameters for protein enrichment by solid-state fermentation using A. oryzae and B. subtilis through Central Composition Design (CCD) included initial moisture content of 63.7%, incubation of temperature 26.9 °C and fermentation time of 67.5 h. Expression profile of protein system was characterized using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The fermentation products appeared as five major protein bands, indicating that the protein components had increased after solid-state fermentation by A. oryzae and B. subtilis.
This study developed an efficient and reliable fermentation method to utilize the industrial wastes of sweet potato beverage residues and peanut shells for the animal protein feed.
KeywordsSweet potato beverage residues Peanut shells Central composite design Aspergillus oryzae and Bacillus subtilis SDS-PAGE Protein enrichment In vitro digestibility
This study was financially supported by the international cooperation project “Utilization and preservation of agricultural by-products and crop residues for ruminant feeding in Israel and China” (2015DFG32360).
- 1.Sheikh, M., Aslam, N., Ahmed, S., Latif, F., Rajoka, M., Jamil, A.: Isolation and cloning of xylanase and beta-glucosidase genes from Trichoderma harzianum. Mol. Cell. Proteomics. 2, 866 (2003)Google Scholar
- 5.Aggelopoulos, T., Bekatorou, A., Pandey, A., Kanellaki, M., Koutinas, A.A.: Discarded oranges and brewer’s spent grains as promoting ingredients for microbial growth by submerged and solid state fermentation of agro-industrial waste mixtures. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 170, 1885–1895 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 8.Kolasa, M., Ahring, B.K., Lübeck, P.S., Lübeck, M.: Co-cultivation of Trichoderma reesei RutC30 with three black Aspergillus strains facilitates efficient hydrolysis of pretreated wheat straw and shows promises for on-site enzyme production. Bioresour. Technol. 169, 143–148 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 11.Darwish, G.A., Bakr, A., Abdallah, M.: Nutritional value upgrading of maize stalk by using Pleurotus ostreatus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in solid state fermentation. Ann. Agric Sci. 57, 47–51 (2012)Google Scholar
- 13.FAO: Production for sweet potato. http://faostat3.fao.org/home/E (2015)
- 14.Anike, F., Yusuf M., Isikhuemhen O.: Co-Substrating of Peanut Shells with Cornstalks Enhances Biodegradation by Pleurotus ostreatus. J. Bioremed. Biodeg. 7, 2 (2016)Google Scholar
- 21.Ahmadi, M., Vahabzadeh, F., Bonakdarpour, B., Mofarrah, E., Mehranian, M.: Application of the central composite design and response surface methodology to the advanced treatment of olive oil processing wastewater using Fenton’s peroxidation. J. Hazard. Mater. 123, 187–195 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 22.Mandels, M., Andreotti, R., Roche, C.: Measurement of saccharifying cellulase. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 6, 21–33 (1976)Google Scholar
- 30.Thiex, N.J, Anderson S, Gildemeister B. Crude fat, hexanes extraction, in feed, cereal grain, and forage (Randall/soxtec/submersion method): collaborative study[J]. J. AOAC. Int. 86, 899–908 (2003)Google Scholar
- 32.Van Soest, P.J.: Collaborative study of acid-detergent fiber and lignin. J. Assoc. Off. Anal. Chem. 56, 781–784 (1973)Google Scholar
- 33.Almeida, M.I., Almeida N.G., Carvalho K.L., Goncalves, G.A.A., Silva, C.N., Santos, E.A., Vargas, E.A.: Co-occurrence of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, and citreoviridin in rice in Brazil[J]. Food Addit. Contam. Part A 29, 694–703 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 34.Iconomou, D., Israilides C., Kandylis K., Nikokyris P.: Protein enrichment of sugar beet pulp by solid state fermentation and its efficacy in animal feeding. Proceeding of the IInd International Symposium of Solid State Fermentation. Montpellier, France, Chap. 23, 289–298 (1995)Google Scholar
- 35.Chen, L., Madl, R.L., Vadlani, P.V.: Nutritional enhancement of soy meal via Aspergillus oryzae solid-state fermentation. Cereal. Chemistry. 90, 529–534 (2013)Google Scholar
- 39.Gu, B., Ma, H.L., Liu, B.: Preparation of bio-feedstuff with rich peptides from rapeseed meal by mixed solid fermentation. J. Chin. Cereals Oils Assoc. 1, 020 (2011)Google Scholar