Waste and Biomass Valorization

, Volume 9, Issue 5, pp 755–764 | Cite as

Fortification of Extruded Product with Brown Seaweed (Sargassum tenerrimum) and Its Process Optimization by Response Surface Methodology

  • Chongtham Baru Singh
  • K. A. Martin Xavier
  • Geetanjali Deshmukhe
  • Venkateshwarlu Gudipati
  • Snehal S. Shitole
  • Amjad K. Balange
Original Paper


The aim of the present study was to develop an extruded product fortified with seaweed (Sargassum tenerrimum) using a co-rotating twin screw extruder and to optimize the process parameters using response surface methodology. The Box–Behnken design was employed with three independent variables i.e. feed moisture (X1), Sargassum powder level (X2) and barrel temperature (X3) with three levels for designing the experiment. The expansion ratio and porosity were considered as response variables. Feed moisture had the most significant (p < 0.05) linear effect on both the response variables whereas Sargassum level and barrel temperature shown significant (p < 0.05) quadratic effect. The optimum level of independent variables i.e. feed moisture, Sargassum level and barrel temperature for maximum expansion ratio were 16.45%, 4.33% and 123.08 °C respectively whereas for maximum porosity were 16.06%, 4.51% and 124.04 °C respectively. The present investigation can be used to develop extruded products fortified with seaweeds as functional food using the optimized process condition as a means to increase the nutritional quality of the traditional extruded snacks which is considered as a junk food.

Graphical Abstract


Extruded product Sargassum tenerrimum Response surface methodology Box–Behnken design Expansion ratio Porosity 



The authors thank the Director of ICAR-Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Mumbai for providing facilities. Authors also acknowledge Research Centre of Central Institute of Fisheries Technology, Mumbai for their support and valuable suggestions.


  1. 1.
    Prior, R.L., Wu, X., Schaich, K.: Standardized methods for the determination of antioxidant capacity and phenolics in foods and dietary supplements. J. Agri. Food Chem. 53, 4290–4302 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dharmananda, S.: The nutritional and medicinal value of seaweeds used in Chinese medicine. (2002). Accessed 28 July 2015.
  3. 3.
    Mohamed, S., Hashim, S.N., Abdul, R.H.: Seaweeds: a sustainable functional food for complementary and alternative therapy—a review. Trend Food Sci. Tech. 23(2), 83–96 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Xiang-Chun, W.U., Bao-ren, L.U., Tseng, C.K.: Comparative fatty acid composition of four Sargassum species (Fucales, Phaeophyta). Chin J. Oceanol. Limnol. 13(4), 370–373 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Robin, F., Schuchmann, H.P., Palzer, S.: Dietary fiber in extruded cereals: limitations and opportunities. Trends Food Sci. Tech. 28, 23–32 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Brennan, C., Brennan, M., Derbyshire, E., Tiwari, B.: Effects of extrusion on the polyphenols, vitamins and antioxidant activity of foods. Trends Food Sci. Tech. 22, 570–575 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dehghan-Shoar, Z., Hardacre, A., Brennan, C.: The physico-chemical characteristics of extruded snacks enriched with tomato lycopene. Food Chem. 123, 1117–1122 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    AOAC: Official methods of analysis (18th Eds.), pp. 270–310. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Gaithersburg (2005)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Shitole, S.S., Balange, A.K., Gangan, S.S.: Use of seaweed (Sargassum tenerrimum) extract as gel enhancer for lesser sardine (Sardinella brachiosoma) surimi. Int. Aqua Res. 45, 1–13 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lin, J.-Y., Tang, C.-Y.: Determination of total phenolic and flavonoid contents in selected fruits and vegetables, as well as their stimulatory effects on mouse splenocyte proliferation. Food Chem. 101(1), 140–147 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Folch, J., Lees, M., Sloane-Stanley, G.: A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. J. Biol. Chem. 226, 497–509 (2006)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    AOAC: Official Methods of analysis (16th Eds.). Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlinton (1995)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Alvarez-Martinez, L., Kondury, K.P., Harper, J.M.: A general model for expansion of extruded product. J Food Sci. 53, 609–615 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Pandey, K.B., Rizvi, S.I.: Plant polyphenols as dietary antioxidants in human health and disease. Oxid. Med. Cell Longev. 2, 270–278 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jackson, J.C., Bourne, M.C., Barnard, J.: Optimization of blanching for crispness of banana chips using response surface methodology. J Food Sci. 61, 165–166 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dawczynski, C., Schubert, R., Jahreis, G.: Amino acids, fatty acids, and dietary fibre in edible seaweed products. Food Chem. 103, 891–899 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hira, A., Tariq, K., Ruqqia, A., Sultana, V., Ara, J.: Evaluation of biochemical component and antimicrobial activity of some seaweeeds occurring at karachi coast. Pak. J. Bot. 44(5), 1799–1803 (2012)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Peng, Y., Xie, E., Zheng, K., Fredimoses, M., Yang, X., Zhou, X., Wang, Y., Yang, B., Lin, X., Liu, J., Liu, Y.: Nutritional and chemical composition and antiviral activity of cultivated seaweed Sargassum naozhouense Tseng et Lu. Mar Drugs. 11, 20–32 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pansawat, N., Jangchud, K., Jangchud, A., Wuttijumnong, P., Saalia, F.K., Eitenmiller, R.R., Phillips, R.D.: Effects of extrusion conditions on secondary extrusion variables and physical properties of fish, rice-based snacks. Food Sci. Tech. 41, 632–641 (2008)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Singh, R.R., Majumdar, R.K., Venkateshwarlu, G.: Optimum extrusion condition for improving physical properties of fish-cereal based snacks by response surface methodology. J. Food Sci. Tech. 51, 1827–1836 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sadasivam, S., Manickan, A.: Carbohydrates. In Biochemical methods. Ansari road, Daryaganj, New Delhi (2005)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Karayannakidis, P.D., Kwon, Y.-I., Lee, C.M., Seeram, N.P.: Seasonal variation of phenolic antioxidant-mediated α-glucosidase inhibition of Ascophyllum nodosum. Plant Food Hum. Nutr. 66, 313–319 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rao, H.G.R., Thejaswini, M.L.: Extrusion technology: a novel method of food processing. Int. J. Innov. Sci. Eng. Tech. 2(4), 358–369 (2015)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ramah, S., Etwarysing, L., Auckloo, N., Gopeechund, A., Bhagooli, R., Bahorun, T.: Prophylactic antioxidants and phenolics of seagrass and seaweed species: a seasonal variation study in a Southern Indian Ocean Island, Mauritius. Int. J. Med. Update. 9(1), 27–37 (2014)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Veronica, O.A., Olusola, O.O., Ebenezer, A.A.: Qualities of extruded puffed snacks from maize/soybean mixture. J. Food Process. Eng. 29, 149–161 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Steel, C.J., Leoro, M.G.V., Schmiele, M., Ferreira, R.E., Chang, Y.K.: Thermoplastic elastomers. In A. Z. El-Sonbati, (Eds), Thermoplastic extrusion in food processing, pp. 265–290. InTech, Rijeka (2012)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bisharat, G.I., Oikonomopoulou, V.P., Panagiotou, N.M., Krokida, M.K., Maroulis, Z.B.: Effect of extrusion conditions on the structural properties of corn extrudates enriched with dehydrated vegetables. Food Res. Int. 53, 1–14 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Anton, A.A., Fulcher, R.G., Arntfield, S.D.: Physical and nutritional impact of fortification of corn starch-based extruded snacks with common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris l) flour: effects of bean addition and extrusion cooking. Food Chem. 113(4), 989–996 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Thachil, M.T., Chouksey, M.K., Gudipati, V.: Amylose-lipid complex formation during extrusion cooking: effect of added lipid type and amylose level on corn-based puffed snacks. Int. J. Food Sci. Tech. 49(2), 309–316 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Chaiyakul, S., Jangchud, K., Jangchud, A., Wuttijumnong, P., Winger, R.: Effect of extrusion conditions on physical and chemical properties of high protein glutinous rice-based snack. Food Sci Tech. 42,781–787 (2009)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kumbhar, R.D., Rode, S.P., Sabale, A.B.: Phycochemical screening of seaweeds from Sindhudurg District of Maharashtra. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. 29, 77–81 (2014)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wang, T., Jonsdottir, R., Olafsdottir, G.: Total phenolic compounds, radicals scavenging and metal chelation of extracts form Icelandic seaweeds. Food Chem. 116, 240–248 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Allen, K.E., Carpenter, C.E., Walsh, M.K.: Influence of protein level and starch type on an extrusion-expanded whey product. Int. J. Food Sci. Tech. 42, 953–960 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ding, Q.-B., Ainsworth, P., Plunkett, A., Tucker, G., Marson, H.: The effect of extrusion conditions on the functional and physical properties of wheat-based expanded snacks. J. Food Eng. 73, 142–148 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Cian, R.E., Caballero, M.S., Sabbag, N., Gonzalez, R.J.: Bio-accessibility of bioactive compounds (ACE inhibitors and antioxidants) from extruded maize products added with a red seaweed Porphyra columbina. Food Sci. Tech. 55, 51–58 (2014)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Murray, J., Delahunty, C., Baxter, I.: Descriptive sensory analysis: past, present and future. Food Res. Int. 34, 461–471 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ozer, E.A., Ibanoglu, S., Ainsworth, P., Yagmur, C.: Expansion characteristics of a nutritious extruded snack food using response surface methodology. Eur. Food Res. Tech. 218, 474–479 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Rao, K.J., Kim, C.H., Rhee, S.K.: Statistical optimization of medium for the production of recombinant hirudin from Saccharomyces cerevisiae using response surface methodology. Process Biochem. 35, 39–47 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Cho, M., Kwak, K.S., Park, D.C.Y., Gu, S., Ji, C., Jang, D.H., Lee, Y.B., Kim, S.B.: Processing optimization and function properties of gelatine from shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) cartilage. Food Hydrocolloid. 18, 573–579 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Cho, S.M., Gu, Y.S., Kim, S.B.: Extraction optimization and physical properties of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) skin gelatine compared to mammalian gelatins. Food Hydrocolloid. 19, 221–229 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Myers, R.H., Montgomery, D.C.: Response surface methodology: process and product optimization umethodology. J. Food Eng. 45, 14–17 (2000)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Prabhasankar, P., Ganesan, P., Bhaskar, N., Hirose, A., Stephen, N., Gowda, L.R., Hosokawa, M., Miyashita, K.: Edible Japanese seaweed, wakame (Undaria pinnatifida) as an ingredient in pasta: chemical, functional and structural evaluation. Food Chem. 115, 50–508 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Thymi, S., Krokida, M.K., Pappa, A., Maroulis, Z.B.: Structural properties of extruded corn starch. J. Food Eng. 68(4), 519–526 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Riaz, M.: Selecting the right extruder. In: R, Guy. (ed.) Extrusion cooking: technology and application, pp. 29–50. CRC Press, Cambridge (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chongtham Baru Singh
    • 1
  • K. A. Martin Xavier
    • 1
  • Geetanjali Deshmukhe
    • 1
  • Venkateshwarlu Gudipati
    • 2
  • Snehal S. Shitole
    • 1
  • Amjad K. Balange
    • 1
  1. 1.Fishery Resources Harvest and Post Harvest Management DivisionICAR-Central Institute of Fisheries EducationMumbaiIndia
  2. 2.Education DivisionIndian Council of Agricultural ResearchNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations