Waste and Biomass Valorization

, Volume 9, Issue 3, pp 409–419 | Cite as

Pulping and Bleaching of Hydro Distillation Waste of Citronella Grass (Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt) for Papermaking

  • Nidhi Sharma
  • R. D. Godiyal
  • Bhawana
  • B. P. Thapliyal
  • Kumar Anupam
Original Paper



This investigation is aimed to explore the pulp and papermaking potential of solid residue left after isolation of essential oil from Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt using hydro distillation, as well as to evaluate the physical strength properties of pulp and paper produced from it.


Soda, soda–AQ (soda–anthraquinone) and kraft pulping of oil isolated C. winterianus were optimized and the corresponding optimum unbleached pulp in each process was subjected to environment friendly ECF (elemental chlorine free) bleaching using D1EpD2 (D = chlorine dioxide in acidic medium; Ep = alkaline extraction with addition of hydrogen peroxide; 1 and 2 = first and second time) sequence. Fibre morphological investigation and fibre classification of bleached pulp from every optimized pulping process were also carried out. Hand sheets of bleached pulps were prepared to evaluate the physical strength properties. All the methods were followed as per standard procedures.


The proximate chemical composition of oil isolated C. winterianus revealed 62.70% holocellulose, 37.62% alpha-cellulose, 21.10% pentosans and 24.10% lignin. Kraft pulping at 12% NaOH dose and 20% sulphidity produced unbleached pulp with kappa 18.72, yield 43.68%, brightness 21.36% and viscosity 32.6 cp; while bleached pulp with brightness 83.67% and viscosity 16.7 cp. However, hand sheets prepared from soda–AQ pulping exhibited tensile index 31.5 N m/g, tear index 5.02 m Nm2/g and burst index 2.20 kPam2/g which were superior to kraft pulping. Soda pulp demonstrated inferiority in quality to kraft and soda–AQ pulps. No significant differences were observed in fibre morphology of pulps from different processes while fibre classification revealed maximum useful bleached fibres 55.9% from kraft pulping.


This research proved that C. winterianus solid residue left after isolation of essential oil could be a substantial source for pulp and papermaking using conventional pulping processes and ECF bleaching sequence at process conditions described in this work.


Non-wood pulping ECF bleaching Oil isolated solid waste Pulp and paper Sustainability 



Authors would like to acknowledge Dr. Nirpendra Chauhan, Scientist-In-Charge, Centre for Aromatic Plants, Industrial Estate, Selaqui 248197, Dehradun, India for arranging hydro distillation waste of C. winterianus Jowitt. We also thank Dr. Priti Shivhare Lal-Scientist EI, Dr. Sanjay Tyagi-Scientist C, Dr. Arvind Kumar Sharma-Sr. Scientific Assistant and Mr. Vinay Swaroop-Junior Research Fellow at Central Pulp and Paper Research Institute, Himmat Nagar, Saharanpur 247001, Uttar Pradesh, India for their valuable insight and support during execution of this work.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nidhi Sharma
    • 1
    • 2
  • R. D. Godiyal
    • 2
  • Bhawana
    • 1
  • B. P. Thapliyal
    • 2
  • Kumar Anupam
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryGraphic Era UniversityDehradunIndia
  2. 2.Paper Testing DivisionCentral Pulp and Paper Research InstituteSaharanpurIndia
  3. 3.Physical Chemistry, Pulping and Bleaching DivisionCentral Pulp and Paper Research InstituteSaharanpurIndia

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