Waste and Biomass Valorization

, Volume 8, Issue 3, pp 755–773 | Cite as

Effects of Pretreatments of Napier Grass with Deionized Water, Sulfuric Acid and Sodium Hydroxide on Pyrolysis Oil Characteristics

  • Isah Yakub Mohammed
  • Yousif Abdalla Abakr
  • Feroz Kabir Kazi
  • Suzana Yusuf
Original Paper

Abstract

The depletion of fossil fuel reserves has led to increasing interest in liquid bio-fuel from renewable biomass. Biomass is a complex organic material consisting of different degrees of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, extractives and minerals. Some of the mineral elements tend to retard conversions, yield and selectivity during pyrolysis processing. This study is focused on the extraction of mineral retardants from Napier grass using deionized water, dilute sodium hydroxide and sulfuric acid and subsequent pyrolysis in a fixed bed reactor. The raw biomass was characterized before and after each pretreatment following standard procedure. Pyrolysis study was conducted in a fixed bed reactor at 600 °C, 30 °C/min and 30 mL/min N2 flow. Pyrolysis oil (bio-oil) collected was analyzed using standard analytic techniques. The bio-oil yield and characteristics from each pretreated sample were compared with oil from the non-pretreated sample. Bio-oil yield from the raw sample was 32.06 wt% compared to 38.71, 33.28 and 29.27 wt% oil yield recorded from the sample pretreated with sulfuric acid, deionized water and sodium hydroxide respectively. GC–MS analysis of the oil samples revealed that the oil from all the pretreated biomass had more value added chemicals and less ketones and aldehydes. Pretreatment with neutral solvent generated valuable leachate, showed significant impact on the ash extraction, pyrolysis oil yield, and its composition and therefore can be regarded as more appropriate for thermochemical conversion of Napier grass.

Keywords

Napier grass Ash Pretreatment Extractives Pyrolysis Bio-oil Characterization 

Abbreviations

AAK

Acids, aldehydes and ketones

ACL

Acid leachate

ACTNGS

Acid treated Napier grass stem

ALL

Alkaline leachate

ALTNGS

Alkaline treated Napier grass stem

ASTM

American Society for Testing and Materials

BSI

British Standards Institution

C

Carbon (%)

c

Cellulose

CFF

Crops for the future

DTG

Derivative of thermogravimetric

e

Extractives

EN

European Standard

EOS

Esters and other organic compounds

FTIR

Fourier transform infrared

GCMS

Gas chromatograph mass spectrometer

H

Hydrogen (%)

h

Hemicellulose

HC

Hydrocarbon

HHV

Higher heating value (MJ/kg)

l

Lignin

L/S

Liquid–solid ratio (wt/wt)

N

Nitrogen (%)

NGS

Napier grass stem

NIST

National Institute of Standards and Technology

NS

Nitrogenous and sulfur containing compounds

O

Oxygen (%)

RNGS

Raw Napier grass stem

Ro

Severity factor

rpm

Revolution per minute (min−1)

S

Sulfur (%)

TGA

Thermogravimetric analyzer

VAC

Value added chemicals

WL

Water leachate

WTNGS

Water treated Napier grass stem

Ybio-char

Bio-char yield

Ybio-oil

Bio-oil yield

YE

Energy yield (%)

YM

Mass yield (%)

YNoncondensable

Noncondensable yield

References

  1. 1.
    Yakub, M.I., Mohamed, S., Danladi, S.U.: Technical and economic considerations of post-combustion carbon capture in a coal fired power plant. Int. J. Adv. Eng. Technol. 7(5), 1549–1581 (2014)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mohammed, I.Y.: Optimization and sensitivity analysis of post-combustion carbon capture using DEA solvent in a coal fired power plant. Int. J. Adv. Eng. Technol. 7(6), 1681–1690 (2015)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mohammed, I.Y., Samah, M., Mohamed, A., Sabina, G.: Comparison of Selexol™ and Rectisol® Technologies in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant for clean energy production. Int. J. Eng. Res. 3(12), 742–744 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yakub, M.I., Abdalla, A.Y., Feroz, K.K., Suzana, Y., Ibraheem, A., Chin, S.A.: Pyrolysis of oil palm residues in a fixed bed tubular reactor. J. Power Energy Eng. 3(04), 185 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gebreslassie, B.H., Slivinsky, M., Wang, B., You, F.: Life cycle optimization for sustainable design and operations of hydrocarbon biorefinery via fast pyrolysis, hydrotreating and hydrocracking. Comput. Chem. Eng. 50, 71–91 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Liew, W.H., Hassim, M.H., Ng, D.K.S.: Review of evolution, technology and sustainability assessments of biofuel production. J. Clean. Prod. 71, 11–29 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Park, S.R., Pandey, A.K., Tyagi, V.V., Tyagi, S.K.: Energy and exergy analysis of typical renewable energy systems. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 30, 105–123 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ming, Z., Ximei, L., Yulong, L., Lilin, P.: Review of renewable energy investment and financing in China: status, mode, issues and countermeasures. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 31, 23–37 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nigam, P.S., Singh, A.: Production of liquid biofuels from renewable resources. Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 37, 52–68 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Srirangan, K., Akawi, L., Moo-Young, M., Chou, C.P.: Towards sustainable production of clean energy carriers from biomass resources. Appl. Energy 100, 172–186 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Samson, R., Mani, S., Boddey, R., Sokhansanj, S., Quesada, D., Urquiaga, S., Reis, V., Ho-Lem, C.: The potential of C4 perennial grasses for developing a global BIOHEAT industry. Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. 24, 461–495 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mohammed, I.Y., Abakr, Y.A., Kazi, F.K., Yusup, S., Alshareef, I., Chin, S.A.: Comprehensive characterization of Napier grass as a feedstock for thermochemical conversion. Energies 8(5), 3403–3417 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Khan, A.A., Jonga, W.D., Jansens, P.J., Spliethoff, H.: Biomass combustion in fluidized bed boilers: potential problems and remedies. Fuel Process. Technol. 90, 21–50 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    García, R., Pizarro, C., Lavín, A.G., Bueno, J.L.: Characterization of Spanish biomass wastes for energy use. Bioresour. Technol. 103, 249–258 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Di-Blasi, C.: Modeling chemical and physical processes of wood and biomass pyrolysis. Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 34(1), 47–90 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jahirul, M.I., Rasul, M.G., Chowdhury, A.A., Ashwath, N.: Biofuels production through biomass pyrolysis—a technological review. Energies 5(12), 4952–5001 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Binder, J.B., Raines, R.T.: Simple chemical transformation of lignocellulosic biomass into furans for fuels and chemicals. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 1979–1985 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Lim, J.S., Abdul-Manan, Z., Wan-Alwi, S.R., Hashim, H.: A review on utilisation of biomass from rice industry as a source of renewable energy. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 16, 3084–3094 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Tan, H., Wang, S.: Experimental study of the effect of acid-washing pretreatment on biomass pyrolysis. J. Fuel Chem. Technol. 37(6), 668–672 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Stephanidis, S., Nitsos, C., Kalogiannis, K., Iliopoulou, E.F., Lappas, A.A., Triantafyllidis, K.S.: Catalytic upgrading of lignocellulosic biomass pyrolysis vapours: effect of hydrothermal pre-treatment of biomass. Catal. Today 167, 37–45 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Biswas, A.K., Umeki, K., Yang, W., Blasiak, W.: Change of pyrolysis characteristics and structure of woody biomass due to steam explosion pretreatment. Fuel Process. Technol. 92, 1849–1854 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kim, Y., Mosier, N.S., Ladisch, M.R.: Enzymatic digestion of liquid hot water pretreated hybrid poplar. Biotechnol Progr. 25, 340–348 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Agbor, V.B., Cicek, N., Sparling, R., Berlin, A., Levin, D.B.: Biomass pretreatment: fundamentals toward application. Biotechnol. Adv. 29, 675–685 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kaar, W.E., Gutierrea, C.V., Kinoshita, C.M.: Steam explosion of sugarcane bagasse as a pretreatment for conversion to ethanol. Biomass Bioenergy 14, 277–287 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Angles, M.N., Ferrandob, F., Farriola, X., Salvad, J.: Suitability of steam exploded residual softwood for the production of binderless panels. Effect of the pretreatment severity and lignin addition. Biomass Bioenergy 21, 211–224 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sassner, P., Galbe, M., Zacchi, G.: Bioethanol production based on simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of steam- pretreated Salix at high dry-matter content. Enzyme Microb. Technol. 39(4), 756–762 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Olofsson, K., Bertilsson, M., Lidén, G.A.: Short review on SSF—an interesting process option for ethanol production from lignocellulosic feedstocks. Biotechnol. Biofuels 1, 1–14 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Chen, W.-H., Liu, S.-H., Juang, T.-T., Tsai, C.-M., Zhuang, Y.-Q.: Characterization of solid and liquid products from bamboo torrefaction. Appl. Energy 160(15), 829–835 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Yang, X., Choi, H.-S., Park, C., Kim, S.-W.: Current states and prospects of organic waste utilization for biorefineries. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 49, 335–349 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    McIntosh, S., Vancov, T.: Enhanced enzyme saccharification of Sorghum bicolor straw using dilute alkali pretreatment. Bioresour. Technol. 101, 5718–5727 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ibrahim, M.M., El-Zawawy, W.K., Abdel-Fattah, Y.R., Soliman, N.A., Agblevor, F.A.: Comparison of alkaline pulping with steam explosion for glucose production from rice straw. Carbohydr Polym 83, 720–725 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Sills, D.L., Gossett, J.M.: Assessment of commercial hemicellulases for sacchari-fication of alkaline pretreated perennial biomass. Bioresour. Technol. 102, 1389–1398 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Menon, V., Rao, M.: Trends in bioconversion of lignocellulose: biofuels, platform chemicals & biorefinery concept. Prog. Energy Combust. Sci. 38, 522–550 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wang, H., Wang, J., Fang, Z., Wang, X., Bu, H.: Enhanced bio-hydrogen production by anaerobic fermentation of apple pomace with enzyme hydrolysis. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 35(15), 8303–8309 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Das, P., Ganesh, A., Wangikar, P.: Influence of pretreatment for deashing of sugarcane bagasse on pyrolysis products. Biomass Bioenergy 27, 445–457 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Zhang, H.P., Ding, S.Y., Mielenz, J.R., Elander, R.T., Laser, M., Himmel, M.E., McMillan, J.R., Lynd, L.R.: Fractionating recalcitrant lignocellulose at modest reaction conditions. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 97(2), 214–223 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    BS EN 14774-1: Solid biofuels. Determination of moisture content. Oven dry method. Total moisture reference method. British Standards Institution, London, UK (2009)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    BS EN 15148: Solid biofuels. Determination of the content of volatile matter. British Standards Institution, London, UK (2009)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    BS EN 14775: Solid biofuels. Determination of ash content. British Standards Institution, London, UK (2009)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    BS EN 14918: Solid biofuels. Determination of calorific value. British Standards Institution, London, UK (2009)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    BS EN 15290: Solid biofuels. Determination of major elements-Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, P, K, Si, Na and Ti. British Standards Institution, London, UK (2011)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Overend, R.P., Chornet, E., Gascoigne, J.A.: Fractionation of Lignocellulosics by Steam-Aqueous Pretreatments and Discussion. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond 321, 523–536 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Mohammed, I.Y., Abakr, A.Y., Kazi, F.K., Yusup, S., Alshareef, I., Soh, A.C.: Pyrolysis of Napier grass in a fixed bed reactor: effect of operating conditions on product yields and characteristics. BioResources 10(4), 6457–6478 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    ASTM D240: Standard test method for heat of combustion of liquid hydrocarbon fuels by bomb calorimeter. ASTM International West Conshohocken, PA (2009)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Mohammed, I.Y., Kazi, F.K., Abakr, Y.A., Yusuf, S., Razzaque, M.A.: Novel method for the determination of water content and higher heating value of pyrolysis oil. BioResources 10(2), 2681–2690 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    ASTM E203: Standard test method for water using volumetric Karl Fischer titration. ASTM International West Conshohocken, PA (2001)Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Eom, I.-Y., Kim, K.-H., Kim, J.-Y., Lee, S.-M., Yeo, H.-M., Choi, I.-G., Choi, J.-W.: Characterization of primary thermal degradation features of lignocellulosic biomass after removal of inorganic metals by diverse solvents. Bioresour. Technol. 102(3), 3437–3444 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Cuvilas, C.A., Yang, W.: Spruce pretreatment for thermal application: water, alkaline, and diluted acid hydrolysis. Energy and Fuel 26, 6426–6431 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Asadieraghi, M., Daud, W.M.A.W.: Characterization of lignocellulosic biomass thermal degradation and physiochemical structure: Effects of demineralization by diverse acid solutions. Energy Convers. Manag. 82, 71–82 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Carpenter, D., Westover, T.L., Czernik, S., Jablonski, W.: Biomass feedstocks for renewable fuel production: a review of the impacts of feedstock and pretreatment on the yield and product distribution of fast pyrolysis bio-oils and vapors. Green Chem. 16, 384–406 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Jiang, L., Hu, S., Sun, L.-S., Su, S., Xu, K., He, L.-M., Xiang, J.: Influence of different demineralization treatments on physicochemical structure and thermal degradation of biomass. Bioresour. Technol. 146, 254–260 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Wigley, T., Yip, A.C.K., Pang, S.: The use of demineralisation and torrefaction to improve the properties of biomass intended as a feedstock for fast pyrolysis. J. Anal. Appl. Pyrol. 113, 296–306 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Deng, L., Zhang, T., Che, D.: Effect of water washing on fuel properties, pyrolysis and combustion characteristics, and ash fusibility of biomass. Fuel Process. Technol. 106, 712–720 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Gudka, B., Jones, J.M., Lea-Langton, A.R., Williams, A., Saddawi, A.: A review of the mitigation of deposition and emission problems during biomass combustion through washing pre-treatment. J. Energy Inst. 89(2), 159–171 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Wang, H., Srinivasan, R., Yu, F., Steele, P., Li, Q., Mitchell, B.: Effect of acid, alkali, and steam explosion pretreatments on characteristics of bio-oil produced from pinewood. Energy Fuels 25, 3758–3764 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Xin, D., Yang, Z., Liu, F., Xu, X., Zhang, J.: Comparison of aqueous ammonia and dilute acid pretreatment of bamboo fractions: structure properties and enzymatic hydrolysis. Bioresour. Technol. 175, 529–536 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Sun, Y.-G., Ma, Y.-L., Wang, L.-Q., Wang, F.-Z., Wu, Q.-Q., Pan, G.-Y.: Physicochemical properties of corn stalk after treatment using steam explosion coupled with acid or alkali. Carbohydr. Polym. 117, 486–493 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Erdogan, E., Atila, B., Mumme, J., Reza, M.T., Toptas, A., Elibol, M., Yanik, J.: Characterization of products from hydrothermal carbonization of orange pomace including anaerobic digestibility of process liquor. Bioresour. Technol. 196, 35–42 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Ben, H., Ragauskas, A.J.: Torrefaction of Loblolly pine. Green Chem. 14, 72–76 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Nhuchhen, D.R., Basu, P., Acharya, B.A.: Comprehensive review on biomass torrefaction. Int. J. Renew. Energy Biofuels 2014, 1–56 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Xu, F., Yu, J., Tesso, T., Dowell, F., Wang, D.: Qualitative and quantitative analysis of lignocellulosic biomass using infrared techniques: a mini-review. Appl. Energy 104, 801–809 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Yang, H., Yan, R., Chen, H., Lee, D.H., Zheng, C.: Characteristics of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin pyrolysis. Fuel 86, 1781–1788 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Nazir, M.S., Wahjoedi, B.A., Yussof, A.W., Abdaulla, M.A.: Eco-friendly extraction and characterization of cellulose from oil palm empty fruit bunches. BioResources 8, 2161–2172 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Lupoi, J.S., Singh, S., Simmons, B.A., Henry, R.J.: Assessment of lignocellulosic biomass using analytical spectroscopy: an evolution to high-throughput techniques. Bioenergy Res. 7(1), 71–23 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Das, S., Bhattacharya, A., Haldar, S., Ganguly, A., Gu, S., Ting, Y.P., Chatterjee, P.K.: Optimization of enzymatic saccharification of water hyacinth biomass for bio-ethanol: Comparison between artificial neural network and response surface methodology. Sustain. Mater. Technol. 3, 17–28 (2015)Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Li, W., Wang, W., Xu, P., Xu, P., Zhao, X., Wang, Y.: Pretreatment of Miscanthus stalk with organic alkali guanidine and amino-guanidine. Bioresour. Technol. 179, 606–610 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Plis, A., Lasek, J., Skawinska, A., Kopczynski, M.: Thermo-chemical properties of biomass from Posidonia oceanica. Chem. Pap. 68, 879–889 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Reddy, K.O., Maheswari, C.U., Shukla, M., Rajulu, A.V.: Chemical composition and structural characterization of Napier grass fibers. Mater. Lett. 67, 35–38 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Sills, D.L., Gossett, J.M.: Using FTIR to predict saccharification from enzymatic hydrolysis of alkali-pretreated biomasses. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 109, 353–362 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Nanda, S., Mohanty, P., Pant, K.K., Naik, S., Kozinski, J.A., Dalai, A.K.: Characterization of north american lignocellulosic biomass and biochars in terms of their candidacy for alternate renewable fuels. Bioenergy Res. 6, 663–677 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Qian, K., Kumar, A., Patil, K., Bellmer, D., Wang, D., Yuan, W., Raymond, L., Huhnke, R.L.: Effects of biomass feedstocks and gasification conditions on the physiochemical properties of char. Energies 6, 3972–3986 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Sebestyén, Z., May, Z., Réczey, K., Jakab, E.: The effect of alkaline pretreatment on the thermal decomposition of hemp. J. Therm. Anal. Calorim. 105, 1061–1069 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Tyrone, W., Wei, Z., Ragauskas, A.: Bioconversion of lignocellulosic pretreatment effluent via oleaginous Rhodococcus opacus DSM 1069. Biomass Bioenergy 72, 200–205 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Tao, F., Miao, J.Y., Shi, G.Y., Zhang, K.C.: Ethanol fermentation by an acid-tolerant Zymomonas mobilis under non-sterilized condition. Process Biochem. 40, 183–187 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Bai, F.W., Anderson, A.W., Moo-Young, M.: Ethanol fermentation technologies from sugar and starch feedstocks. Biotechnol. Adv. 26, 89–105 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Mitsumasu, K., Liu, Z.-S., Tang, Y.-Q., Akamatsu, T., Taguchi, H., Kida, K.: Development of industrial yeast strain with improved acid- and thermo-tolerance through evolution under continuous fermentation conditions followed by haploidization and mating. J. Biosci. Bioeng. 118(6), 689–695 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Beauchet, R., Monteil-River, F., Lavoie, J.M.: Conversion of lignin to aromatic-based chemicals (L-chems) and biofuels (L-fuels). Bioresour. Technol. 121, 328–334 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Azadi, P., Inderwildi, O.R., Farnood, R., King, D.A.: Liquid fuels, hydrogen and chemicals from lignin: a critical review. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 21, 506–523 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Ma, X., Tian, Y., Hao, W., Ma, R., Li, Y.: Production of phenols from catalytic conversion of lignin over a tungsten phosphide catalyst. Appl. Catal. A 481, 64–70 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    AbuBakar, M.S., Titiloye, J.O.: Catalytic pyrolysis of rice husk for bio-oil production. J. Anal. Appl. Pyrol. 103, 362–368 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Lee, M.-K., Tsai, W.-T., Tsai, Y.-L., Lin, S.-H.: Pyrolysis of Napier grass in an induction-heating reactor. J. Anal. Appl. Pyrol. 88(2), 110–116 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Fan, Y., Cai, Y., Li, X., Yin, H., Yu, N., Zhang, R., Zhao, W.: Rape straw as a source of bio-oil via vacuum pyrolysis: optimization of bio-oil yield using orthogonal design method and characterization of bio-oil. J. Anal. Appl. Pyrol. 106, 63–70 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Imam, T., Capareda, S.: Characterization of bio-oil, syn-gas and bio-char from switchgrass pyrolysis at various temperatures. J. Anal. Appl. Pyrol. 93, 170–177 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Le Roux, E., Chaouch, M., Diouf, P.N., Stevanovic, T.: Impact of a pressurized hot water treatment on the quality of bio-oil produced from aspen. Biomass Bioenergy 81, 202–209 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Adrados, A., DeMarco, I., Lopez-Urionabarrenechea, A., Solar, J., Caballero, B.: Avoiding tar formation in biocoke production from waste biomass. Biomass Bioenergy 74, 172–179 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Guo, Y., Song, W., Lu, J., Ma, Q., Xu, D., Wang, S.: Hydrothermal liquefaction of Cyanophyta: evaluation of potential bio-crude oil production and component analysis. Algal Res. 11, 242–247 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Bordoloi, N., Narzari, R., Chutia, R.S., Bhaskar, T., Kataki, R.: Pyrolysis of Mesua ferrea and Pongamia glabra seed cover: characterization of bio-oil and its sub-fractions. Bioresour. Technol. 178, 83–89 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Deshmukh, Y., Yadav, V., Nigam, N., Yadav, A., Khare, P.: Quality of bio-oil by pyrolysis of distilled spent of Cymbopogon flexuosus. J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis 115, 43–50 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Isah Yakub Mohammed
    • 1
    • 5
  • Yousif Abdalla Abakr
    • 2
  • Feroz Kabir Kazi
    • 3
  • Suzana Yusuf
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Chemical and Environmental EngineeringThe University of Nottingham Malaysia CampusSemenyihMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical, Manufacturing and Material EngineeringThe University of Nottingham Malaysia CampusSemenyihMalaysia
  3. 3.Department of Engineering and MathematicsSheffield Hallam UniversitySheffieldUK
  4. 4.Department of Chemical EngineeringUniversiti Teknology Petronas (UTP)TronohMalaysia
  5. 5.Crops for the Future (CFF)The University of Nottingham Malaysia CampusSemenyihMalaysia

Personalised recommendations