Waste and Biomass Valorization

, Volume 8, Issue 3, pp 755–773 | Cite as

Effects of Pretreatments of Napier Grass with Deionized Water, Sulfuric Acid and Sodium Hydroxide on Pyrolysis Oil Characteristics

  • Isah Yakub Mohammed
  • Yousif Abdalla AbakrEmail author
  • Feroz Kabir Kazi
  • Suzana Yusuf
Original Paper


The depletion of fossil fuel reserves has led to increasing interest in liquid bio-fuel from renewable biomass. Biomass is a complex organic material consisting of different degrees of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, extractives and minerals. Some of the mineral elements tend to retard conversions, yield and selectivity during pyrolysis processing. This study is focused on the extraction of mineral retardants from Napier grass using deionized water, dilute sodium hydroxide and sulfuric acid and subsequent pyrolysis in a fixed bed reactor. The raw biomass was characterized before and after each pretreatment following standard procedure. Pyrolysis study was conducted in a fixed bed reactor at 600 °C, 30 °C/min and 30 mL/min N2 flow. Pyrolysis oil (bio-oil) collected was analyzed using standard analytic techniques. The bio-oil yield and characteristics from each pretreated sample were compared with oil from the non-pretreated sample. Bio-oil yield from the raw sample was 32.06 wt% compared to 38.71, 33.28 and 29.27 wt% oil yield recorded from the sample pretreated with sulfuric acid, deionized water and sodium hydroxide respectively. GC–MS analysis of the oil samples revealed that the oil from all the pretreated biomass had more value added chemicals and less ketones and aldehydes. Pretreatment with neutral solvent generated valuable leachate, showed significant impact on the ash extraction, pyrolysis oil yield, and its composition and therefore can be regarded as more appropriate for thermochemical conversion of Napier grass.


Napier grass Ash Pretreatment Extractives Pyrolysis Bio-oil Characterization 



Acids, aldehydes and ketones


Acid leachate


Acid treated Napier grass stem


Alkaline leachate


Alkaline treated Napier grass stem


American Society for Testing and Materials


British Standards Institution


Carbon (%)




Crops for the future


Derivative of thermogravimetric




European Standard


Esters and other organic compounds


Fourier transform infrared


Gas chromatograph mass spectrometer


Hydrogen (%)






Higher heating value (MJ/kg)




Liquid–solid ratio (wt/wt)


Nitrogen (%)


Napier grass stem


National Institute of Standards and Technology


Nitrogenous and sulfur containing compounds


Oxygen (%)


Raw Napier grass stem


Severity factor


Revolution per minute (min−1)


Sulfur (%)


Thermogravimetric analyzer


Value added chemicals


Water leachate


Water treated Napier grass stem


Bio-char yield


Bio-oil yield


Energy yield (%)


Mass yield (%)


Noncondensable yield



The project was supported by the Crops for the Future (CFF) and University of Nottingham under the grant BioP1-005.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Isah Yakub Mohammed
    • 1
    • 5
  • Yousif Abdalla Abakr
    • 2
    Email author
  • Feroz Kabir Kazi
    • 3
  • Suzana Yusuf
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Chemical and Environmental EngineeringThe University of Nottingham Malaysia CampusSemenyihMalaysia
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical, Manufacturing and Material EngineeringThe University of Nottingham Malaysia CampusSemenyihMalaysia
  3. 3.Department of Engineering and MathematicsSheffield Hallam UniversitySheffieldUK
  4. 4.Department of Chemical EngineeringUniversiti Teknology Petronas (UTP)TronohMalaysia
  5. 5.Crops for the Future (CFF)The University of Nottingham Malaysia CampusSemenyihMalaysia

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