Isolation of Nanocrystalline Cellulose: A Technological Route for Valorizing Recycled Tetra Pak Aseptic Multilayered Food Packaging Wastes
- 471 Downloads
Cellulose fibres were extracted from recycled Tetra Pak food packaging which can be a source of low cost biomass using a simple process. According to the FT-IR and XRD results, alkaline purification and bleaching have removed 99 % of the lignin that remained in the recycled cellulose fibres (up to 10 %). TEM analysis showed that depending on cellulose purity and reaction time, the average particle lengths of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) successfully isolated from the recycled material using acid hydrolysis ranged from 127 ± 42 to 258 ± 54 nm with average widths varying between 11.4 ± 2.8 and 14 ± 4.1 nm. Extending the reaction time to 180 min led to short rod-like particles displaying crystallinity comparable to those of the reference NCC isolated from commercial microcrystalline cellulose. A decline in the NCC thermal stability was noticed following the extraction process, NCA isolated from unpurified starting fibres showed a slightly higher stability with Tmax = 204 °C. Overall, a length to diameter aspect ratio >10 was obtained for all NCC particles, indifferently of the purity of the starting materials.
KeywordsRecycled Tetra Pak Waste valorization Nanocrystalline cellulose Technological route Isolation Characterization
The authors are grateful to BiofuelNet Canada and to the Industrial Research Chair on Cellulosic Ethanol and Biocommodities of the Université de Sherbrooke for their support of the project. The Chair is co-funded by CRB Innovations, Enerkem and Ethanol Greenfield Québec Inc., as well as the Ministère de l’énergie et des ressources naturelles du Québec.
- 2.Tetra Pak: Tetra Pak in figures. http://www.tetrapak.com/ca/about/facts figures (2014a). Last visited 18 Oct 2015
- 3.Tetra Pak: Tetra Pak makes progress towards environmental targets. http://www.tetrapak.com/about/newsarchive/progress-towards-environmental-targets (2014b). Last visited 18 Oct 2015
- 6.Brem, A., Dewil, R., Baeyens, J., Zhang, R.: Gasification of plastic waste as waste to energy or waste-to-syngas recovery route. Nat. Sci. 5(6), 695–704 (2013)Google Scholar
- 7.Perlack, R.D., Wright, L.L., Turhollow, A.F., Graham, R.L., Stokes, B.J., Erbach, D.G.: Biomass as feed stock for a bioenergy and bioproducts industry: the technical feasibility of a billion-ton annual supply US Department of Energy/US Department of Agriculture report. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak. Ridge, Tenn. http://www.ornl.gov/~webworks/cppr/y2001/rpt/123021.pdf (2005). last visited 23 Oct 2015
- 8.Tetra Pak Corporate Environment Affairs: Recycling of tetra Pak beverage cartons. 1–13 http://www.ekopaket.si/upload/file/Recikliranje%20Tetra%20Pak%20embalaze%20za%20pijacpdf?phpMyAdmin=8f4aea4ea78343d51594e6196d6e3172 (2000). Last visited 15 Feb 2015
- 11.Turbak, A.F., Snyder, F.W., Sandberg, K.R.: Microfibrillated cellulose, a new cellulose product: properties, uses, and commercial potential. J. Appl. Polym. Sci.: Appl. Polym. Symp. 37, 815–823 (1983)Google Scholar
- 12.Dhar, P., Bhardwaj, U., Kumar, A., Katiyar, V.: Cellulose nanocrystals: a potential nanofiller for food packaging applications. Food Additives and Packaging, ACS Symposium Series, Chapter 17, 1162, 197–239 (2014) ISBN13: 9780841230248eISBN: 9780841230255Google Scholar
- 17.Kumar, A., Negi, Y.S., Choudhary, V., Bhardwaj, N.K.: Characterization of cellulose nanocrystals produced by acid-hydrolysis from sugarcane bagasse as agro waste. J. Mater. Phys. Chem. 2(1), 1–8 (2014)Google Scholar
- 23.Lee, H.V., Hamid, S.B.A., Zain, S.K.: Conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to nanocellulose: structure and chemical process. Sci. World J. 2014, 1–20 (2014)Google Scholar
- 33.Chan, C.H., Chia, C.H., Zakaria, S., Ahmad, I., Dufresne, A.: Production and characterisation of cellulose and nanocrystalline cellulose from kenaf core wood. BioResources 8(1), 785–794 (2013)Google Scholar
- 34.Krishnamachari, P., Hashaikeh, R., Chiesa, M., Gad El Rab, K.R.M.: Effects of acid hydrolysis time on cellulose nanocrystals properties: nanoindentation and thermogravimetric studies. Cellulose. Chem. Technol. 46(1–2), 13–18 (2012)Google Scholar