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Drying Kinetic Analysis of Municipal Solid Waste Using Modified Page Model and Pattern Search Method


This work studied the drying kinetics of the organic fractions of municipal solid waste (MSW) samples with different initial moisture contents and presented a new method for determination of drying kinetic parameters. A series of drying experiments at different temperatures were performed by using a thermogravimetric technique. Based on the modified Page drying model and the general pattern search method, a new drying kinetic method was developed using multiple isothermal drying curves simultaneously. The new method fitted the experimental data more accurately than the traditional method. Drying kinetic behaviors under extrapolated conditions were also predicted and validated. The new method indicated that the drying activation energies for the samples with initial moisture contents of 31.1 and 17.2 % on wet basis were 25.97 and 24.73 kJ mol−1. These results are useful for drying process simulation and industrial dryer design. This new method can be also applied to determine the drying parameters of other materials with high reliability.

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Moisture ratio


Municipal solid waste


Objective function


Root mean square error

D 0 :

Arrhenius preexponential factor

D eff :

Effective moisture diffusivity

E a :

Drying activation energy

k :

Pseudo moisture diffusivity

k 0 :

Pseudo preexponential factor

L 0 :

Half-thickness of the slab

m :

Number of drying temperatures

n :


n d :

Number of data points

R :

Universal gas constant

R2 :

Coefficient of determination

t :


T :


w 0 :

Initial moisture content

w e :

Equilibrium moisture content

w t :

Moisture content at any particular time

x :

Spatial dimension

λ :

Empirical constant

cal :

Calculated data

exp :

Experimental data

i :

The ith temperature

j :

The jth data point


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Junmeng Cai and Wenfei Cai would like to acknowledge the financial support from the IRSES ECOFUEL programme (FP7-PEOPLE-2009-IRSES Grant 246772). Yang Yang would like to acknowledge the support from the EPSRC Supergen Bioenergy Challenge “PyroAD” Project (EP/K036793/1).

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Corresponding author

Correspondence to Junmeng Cai.

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The authors declare no competing financial interest.

Appendix: MATLAB Code for the Objective Function (ObjectiveFunction.m)

Appendix: MATLAB Code for the Objective Function (ObjectiveFunction.m)


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Cai, J., Yang, Y., Cai, W. et al. Drying Kinetic Analysis of Municipal Solid Waste Using Modified Page Model and Pattern Search Method. Waste Biomass Valor 8, 301–312 (2017).

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  • Municipal solid waste (MSW)
  • Drying kinetics
  • Pattern search method
  • Drying activation energy
  • Thermogravimetric technique