Waste and Biomass Valorization

, Volume 8, Issue 2, pp 301–312 | Cite as

Drying Kinetic Analysis of Municipal Solid Waste Using Modified Page Model and Pattern Search Method

  • Junmeng CaiEmail author
  • Yang Yang
  • Wenfei Cai
  • Tony Bridgwater
Original Paper


This work studied the drying kinetics of the organic fractions of municipal solid waste (MSW) samples with different initial moisture contents and presented a new method for determination of drying kinetic parameters. A series of drying experiments at different temperatures were performed by using a thermogravimetric technique. Based on the modified Page drying model and the general pattern search method, a new drying kinetic method was developed using multiple isothermal drying curves simultaneously. The new method fitted the experimental data more accurately than the traditional method. Drying kinetic behaviors under extrapolated conditions were also predicted and validated. The new method indicated that the drying activation energies for the samples with initial moisture contents of 31.1 and 17.2 % on wet basis were 25.97 and 24.73 kJ mol−1. These results are useful for drying process simulation and industrial dryer design. This new method can be also applied to determine the drying parameters of other materials with high reliability.

Graphical Abstract


Municipal solid waste (MSW) Drying kinetics Pattern search method Drying activation energy Thermogravimetric technique 

List of symbols


Moisture ratio


Municipal solid waste


Objective function


Root mean square error


Arrhenius preexponential factor


Effective moisture diffusivity


Drying activation energy


Pseudo moisture diffusivity


Pseudo preexponential factor


Half-thickness of the slab


Number of drying temperatures




Number of data points


Universal gas constant


Coefficient of determination






Initial moisture content


Equilibrium moisture content


Moisture content at any particular time


Spatial dimension


Empirical constant



Calculated data


Experimental data


The ith temperature


The jth data point



Junmeng Cai and Wenfei Cai would like to acknowledge the financial support from the IRSES ECOFUEL programme (FP7-PEOPLE-2009-IRSES Grant 246772). Yang Yang would like to acknowledge the support from the EPSRC Supergen Bioenergy Challenge “PyroAD” Project (EP/K036793/1).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no competing financial interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Junmeng Cai
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Yang Yang
    • 2
  • Wenfei Cai
    • 1
  • Tony Bridgwater
    • 2
  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture (South) Ministry of Agriculture, Biomass Energy Engineering Research Centre, School of Agriculture and BiologyShanghai Jiao Tong UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Bioenergy Research Group, European Bioenergy Research Institute (EBRI)Aston UniversityBirminghamUK

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