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Waste and Biomass Valorization

, Volume 7, Issue 2, pp 237–266 | Cite as

Environmental Friendly Fluidized Bed Combustion of Solid Fuels: A Review About Local Scale Modeling of Char Heterogeneous Combustion

  • Germán D. Mazza
  • José M. Soria
  • Daniel Gauthier
  • Andrés Reyes Urrutia
  • Mariana Zambon
  • Gilles FlamantEmail author
Review

Abstract

Purpose

Fluidized bed combustion is currently intensively developed throughout the world to produce energy from several types of solid fuels, while significantly reducing pollutant emissions with respect to conventional combustion units. Accurate models must be formulated at both bed and particle levels to operate efficiently such units, since local phenomena such as particle temperature and combustion rate are crucial aspects for process improvement and control. In this sense, this article proposes a classification of local scale models to represent the evolution of char heterogeneous combustion of any carbonaceous particles.

Methods

Existing models are described and classified based on the characteristics of the governing equations, the thermal behavior of the gas and solid phases and the description of both the burning particle and the surrounding gas, under a heterogeneous or pseudo-continuous assumption. Criteria for choosing one model instead of others are also considered, depending on the case. The so-called Intrinsic Reactivity Models are described in detail for evaluating the pertinence of their simulated results. The use of CFD to build a simulation scheme of the solid combustion process at local scale is also presented and discussed.

Results

A complete description of the solid fuel burning process is given, along with useful information concerning the evolution of different variables, such as particle internal temperature that governs the reaction rate and gas composition.

Conclusions

This comparative analysis gives a strong basis to select the appropriate modeling approach. Finally, recommendations are proposed for model application and future development.

Keywords

Solid fuels combustion Clean operation Fluidized bed Local scale Model classification 

List of symbols

Bi

Biot number, dimensionless

cp

Specific heat capacity (J/kg K)

C

Molar concentration (kmol/m3)

d

Diameter (m)

D

Diffusivity (m2/s)

e

Particle emissivity

Ea

Activation energy (J/kmol)

h

Enthalpy (J)

hb,s

Heat transfer coefficient (particle in bed) (W/m2 K)

hg,s

Heat transfer coefficient (particle in gas) (W/m2 K)

is

Solid component j

km

Mass transfer coefficient between particle and its surrounding (m/s)

n

Number of chemical reactions

N

Number of components

Ns

Number of species

r

Radius (m)

r

Distance from particle center (m)

r

Spherical coordinate

rS

Particle external radius (m)

R

Gas law constant (8.315 J/kg mol)

Ri

Reaction rate of chemical reaction i (kg/m3 s)

S

Area (m2)

Sv

Specific surface area (m2/m3)

t

Time (s)

T

Temperature (K)

TS

Temperature at particle surface (K)

v

Gas velocity (m/s)

v0

Superficial gas velocity (m/s)

x

x-direction

xC

Conversion degree of solid or carbon

X

Solid component mass fraction

y

Axis of cylinder

y

Species mass fraction

Greek letters

α

Stoichiometric coefficient

ϒ

Stoichiometric coefficient

∆H

Reaction enthalpy (J/kg)

∆T

Temperature difference (K)

ε

Porosity

τ

Particle tortuosity

λ

Thermal conductivity (W/m K)

ρ

Density (kg/m3)

σ

Stephan–Boltzmann constant (5.67 × 10−8 W/m2 K4)

ΩH

Overall source term due to chemical reaction, for energy

ΩM

Overall source term due to chemical reaction, for mass

Ψ

Adjustable parameter in Eq. (13)

Grade operator

Subscripts

0

Initial

av

Available

b

Bed, bulk

C

Carbon

eff

Effective

g

Gas

H

Enthalpy

i

Combustion reaction

j

Species or component j

m

Mass

max

Maximum

p

Particle

ref

Reference

s

External surface of the solid

s

Solid

Superscripts

0

Reference

g

Gas

NS

Number of species

s

Solid

Abbreviations

AC

Asymptotic consumption

ANN

Artificial neural network

CFD

Computational fluid dynamics

DAE

Distributed activation energy

DEM

Discrete element method

FB

Fluidized bed

FBC

Fluidized bed combustor

GC

General case

GC

Global combustion

HM

Heavy metal

HSC

Heterogeneous shrinking core

IR

Intrinsic reactive

IRGC

Intrinsic reactivity general case

LES

Large eddy simulation

LHS

Left hand side

MLP

Multi layer perceptron

MSW

Municipal solid waste

RDF

Residue derived fuel

RHS

Right hand side

QSS

Quasi stationary state

PVC

Poly vinyl chloride

SIMPLE

Semi-implicit method for pressure-linked equations

UC

Uniform conversion

UDF

User defined function

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was developed in the CONICET (MINCyT)—CNRS Argentine—French collaboration agreement (SYNSOLGAS PROJECT). G. D. Mazza and J. M. Soria are Research Members of CONICET (Argentina). It was supported by the SOLSTICE Laboratory of Excellence of the French “Investments for the future” programme managed by the National Agency for Research under contract ANR-10-LABX-22-01.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Germán D. Mazza
    • 1
  • José M. Soria
    • 1
  • Daniel Gauthier
    • 2
  • Andrés Reyes Urrutia
    • 1
  • Mariana Zambon
    • 1
  • Gilles Flamant
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Instituto de Investigación y Desarrollo en Ingeniería de ProcesosBiotecnología y Energías Alternativas (PROBIEN, CONICET-UNCo)NeuquénArgentina
  2. 2.Laboratoire Procédés, Matériaux et Énergie Solaire (CNRS-PROMES)Font-RomeuFrance

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