Production of Biodiesel from Crotalaria juncea (Sunn-Hemp) Oil Using Catalytic Trans-Esterification: Process Optimisation Using a Factorial and Box–Behnken Design
This study consists of the production of biodiesel from methanolysis of Sunn-hemp (Crotalaria juncea) oil, using homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts. Calcium carbonate enriched sea shells like capiz and conch shell are used as natural catalysts after calcination for trans-esterification. These heterogeneous catalysts are physically characterized in order to locate the active sites using X-ray powder diffraction. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry is used to identify and estimate the fatty acid methyl esters of the biodiesel. Basic fuel properties like specific gravity, moisture content, kinematic viscosity, saponification value, iodine value, flash point, fire point, aniline point, cetane number and heat content are determined to establish this biodiesel as a diesel substitute for a fuel. The fuel properties indicate that after some modifications, Sunn-hemp seed oil based biodiesel could be a promising new source for the production of biofuel. Response Surface Methodology is used to optimize the operating parameters of the process. A Factorial and Box–Behnken Design is used to study the effects of time of reaction, type of catalyst, catalyst concentration and oil to methanol mole ratio on the yield of biodiesel. Statistical analysis shows that the model is significant with a R 2 value of 0.997 having achieved the optimum conditions after 4.15 h, with an oil to methanol molar ratio of 11. 2 wt% catalyst concentration and potassium hydroxide as the best catalyst for the production of 90.25 % biodiesel.
KeywordsSunn-hemp Catalyst Methanolysis GCMS RSM
The authors are grateful to UGC, India for supporting this project under their Major Research Project Grant. The first author is particularly grateful to CSIR, India for providing her with a fellowship of SRF [File No.: 09/096(787)/2013-EMR-I dated 21.03.2013]. The authors also thank the Bose Institute and National Test House, Kolkata, India for their support during some of the tests.
- 13.Singh, V.P.: Indian biofuel scenario: An assessment of science and policy (2011)Google Scholar
- 17.Takase, M., Zhao, T., Zhang, M., Chen, Y., Liu, H., Yang, L., Wu, X.: An expatiate review of neem, jatropha, rubber and karanja as multipurpose non-edible biodiesel resources and comparison of their fuel, engine and emission properties. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 43, 495–520 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 18.Gonsalves, J.B.: An assessment of the biofuels industry in India. https://biotechnologie.init-ag.de (2006)
- 22.Chaudhury, J., Singh, D.P., Hazra, S.K.: Sunnhemp (Crotalaria juncea L.). Monograph, Central Research Institute for Jute and Allied Fibres, pp. 1–45 (2007)Google Scholar
- 31.Hagen, J.: Industrial Catalysis: A Practical Approach. Wiley, New York (2006)Google Scholar
- 35.Maran, J.P., Manikandan, S., Priya, B., Gurumoorthi, P.: Box–Behnken design based multi-response analysis and optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of bioactive flavonoid compounds from tea (Camellia sinensis L.) leaves. J. Food Sci. Technol. 52(1), 92–104 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 37.Van Gerpen, J.: Cetane number testing of biodiesel. In: Proceedings of the third liquid fuels conference 1996, pp. 197–206Google Scholar
- 51.Ivanova-Petropulos, V., Mitrev, S., Stafilov, T., Markova, N., Leitner, E., Lankmayr, E., Siegmund, B.: Characterisation of traditional Macedonian edible oils by their fatty acid composition and their volatile compounds. Food Res. Int. 77(3), 506–514 (2015)Google Scholar