Waste and Biomass Valorization

, Volume 7, Issue 2, pp 383–395 | Cite as

Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Biomass from Agro-industrial Processes in the Central Macedonia Region, Greece

  • A. E. MaragkakiEmail author
  • T. Kotrotsios
  • P. Samaras
  • A. Manou
  • K. Lasaridi
  • T. Manios
Original Paper


This work aims to identify the potential biomass resources produced in the area of the Central Macedonia Region, in Northern Greece, in order to contribute to the efforts to achieve national targets for renewable energy sources. Specific objectives included the evaluation of the biomass amounts in each regional unit, the measurement of their characteristics and properties, and the investigation of their utilization potential. According to this survey, a total of 1.33 million tonnes of fresh biomass residues are produced in the Greek Central Macedonia Region. The utilization potential of available biomass resources may be evaluated according to the quality characteristics of the various types of biomass based on the results of laboratory tests and classified in the following ranking in descending order: peach and olive stone, cotton residues, almond shell, olive cake, pressed grape skins, peach pulp and peach and potato peels. The residues from oil production and cotton mill residues are of high importance. Agricultural residues remaining in the farming areas, such as olive and peach branches, represent another challenging biomass source. Furthermore, according to the survey for each regional unit, there is a significant number of biomass types that could be utilized, after appropriate management. An efficient management plan should be based on the use of biomass resources with a regular production regime over the year, such as manure or potato residues, combined with or supported by the sequential use of various other residues produced through the year, on a temporary basis. Thus the presence of different types of biomass resources in the specific area, with seasonal variability, could justify the continuous availability of raw materials all year round.


Agro-industrial units Biomass potential Biomass quality properties Renewable energy sources Bio-energy Central Macedonia Region 


  1. 1.
    Government Gazette Α 85/04.06.10, low number 3851: Accelerating development of renewable energy to address climate change and other provisions on jurisdiction. Ministry of Environment, Energy and Climate Change (2010)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Database of D.G. Customs and Excise Duties: Hellenic Republic, Ministry of Finance (2013)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hellenic Statistical Authority (EL.STAT): Population distribution, Table 1 De jure (registered) population (2011)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Regulatory Authority for Energy (RAE): Renewable Energy Sources, Licenses, Hellenic Republic (2013)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sikkema, K., Steiner, M., Junginger, M., Hieg, W., Hansen, M., Faaij, A.: The European wood pellet markets: current status and prospects for 2020. Biofuels, Bioprod. Biorefin. 5, 250–278 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Jiranek, J., Weger, J.: The potential and utilisation of biomass in the Czech Republic. In: Proceedings of the 10th European conference and technology exhibition on biomass for energy and industry, Wurzburg, Germany, pp. 1002–1005 (1998)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Souckova, H.: Increase of renewable sources of energy in the Czech Republic. In: Proceedings of 12th European conference on biomass for energy, industry and climate protection, 17–21 June 2002. Amsterdam, The Netherlands, pp. 177–179 (2002)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mustafa, B.: Use of biomass sources for energy in Turkey and a view to biomass potential. Biomass Bioenergy 29, 32–41 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fernandes, U., Costa, M.: Potential of biomass residues for energy production and utilization in a region of Portugal. Biomass Bioenergy 34, 661–666 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Scarlat, N., Blujdea, V., Dallemand, J.: Assessment of the availability of agricultural and forest residues for bioenergy production in Romania. Biomass Bioenergy 35, 1995–2005 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Summers, M.D., Jenkins, B.M.: Biomass production and allocation in rice with implications for straw harvesting and utilization. Biomass Bioenergy 24, 163–173 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hamelinck, C., van den Broek, R., Rice, B., Gilbert, A., Ragwitz, M., Toro, F.: Liquid biofuels strategy study for Ireland, report prepared for sustainable energy Ireland (2004)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Panoutsou, C., Labalette, F.: Cereals straw for bioenergy and competitive uses. In: Proceedings of the cereals straw resources for bioenergy in the European Union, Pamplona, 18–19 October (2006)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Patterson, P.E., Makus, L., Momont, P., Robertson, L.: The availability, alternative uses and value of straw in Idaho, final report of the Project BD-K251. Idaho Wheat Commission (1995)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Walsh, M.E., Perlack, R.L., Turhollow, A., de la Torre Ugarte, D., Becker, D.A., Graham, R.L., Slinsky, S.E., Ray, D.E.: Biomass feedstock availability in the United States: 1999 state level analysis. (2000)
  16. 16.
    Nelson, R.G.: Resource assessment and removal analysis for corn stover and wheat straw in the Eastern and Midwestern United States. Biomass Bioenergy 22, 349–363 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ericsson, K., Nilsson, L.J.: Assessment of the potential biomass supply in Europe using a resource focused approach. Lund University, Sweden (2005)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Esteban, L.S., Ciria, P., Carrasco, J.E.: An assessment of relevant methodological elements and criteria for surveying sustainable agricultural and forestry biomass byproducts for energy purposes. Bioresources 3, 910–928 (2008)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Nikolaou, A., Lychanaras, V., Panoutsou, C.: Characteristics and geographical distribution of agricultural residues for energy production in Greece. In: 12th European conference of biomass for energy, industry and climate protection, Amsterdam, 17–21 June (2002)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Di Blasi, C., Tanzi, V., Lanzetta, M.: A study on the production of agricultural residues in Italy. Biomass Bioenergy 12, 321–331 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Jölli, D., Giljum, S.: Unused biomass extraction in agriculture, forestry and fishery, Seri Report Nr. 3 (2005)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    EN CEN/TS 15442. Solid recovered fuels—methods for samplingGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    CEN, European Committee for Standardization: CEN/TS 15414/02: 2006, CEN/TS 15400, CEN/TS 15402, CEN/TS 15408, CEN/TS 15403Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Mc Kendry, P.: Energy production from biomass (part 1) overview of biomass. Bioresour. Technol. 83, 37–46 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    CEN/TS 15414/02: 2006. Solid recovered fuels—determination of moisture content using the oven dry method—Part 2: determination of total moisture content by a simplified method. CEN, European Committee for Standardization (2006)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    CEN/TS 15400. Solid recovered fuels—determination of calorific value. CEN, European Committee for StandardizationGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    CEN/TS 15402. Solid recovered fuels—determination of the content of volatile matter. CEN, European Committee for StandardizationGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    CEN/TS 15408. Solid recovered fuels—methods for the determination of sulphur (S), chlorine (Cl), fluorine (F) and bromine (Br) content. CEN, European Committee for StandardizationGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    CEN/TS 15403. Solid recovered fuels—determination of ash content. CEN, European Committee for StandardizationGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    PHYLLIS—a database for biomass and waste. Petten, Netherlands: Netherlands Energy Research Foundation ECN. (2014)
  31. 31.
    Zabaniotou, A., Skoulou, V.: Application of pilot technologies for energy utilization of agricultural residues in Northern Greece. Therm. Sci. 11(3), 125–213 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Zabaniotou, A., Skoulou, V., Koufodimos, G., Samaras, Z.: Investigation study for the technological application of alternative methods for the energy exploitation of biomass/agricultural residues in Northern Greece. Therm. Sci. 11(3), 115–123 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Petrou, E., Mihiotis, A.: Design of a factory’s supply system with biomass in order to be used as an alternative fuel—a case study. Energy Fuels 21(6), 3718–3722 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Akdeniz, C., Acaroglu, M., Hepbasli, A.: Cotton stalk as a potential energy source. Energy Sources 26(1), 65–75 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Manios, T.: The composting potential of different organic solid wastes: experience from the Island of Crete. Environ. Int. 29, 1079–1089 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Skoulou, V., Mariolis, N., Zanakis, G., Zabaniotou, A.: Sustainable management of energy crops for integrated biofuels and green energy production in Greece. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 15, 1928–1936 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sokhansanj, S.: The effect of moisture on heating values. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge (2011)Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    García, R., Pizarro, C., Lavín, A., Bueno, J.: Characterization of Spanish biomass wastes for energy use. Bioresour. Technol. 103, 249–258 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Khan, A., de Jong, W., Jansens, J., Spliethoff, H.: Biomass combustion in fluidized bed boilers: potential problems and remedies. Fuel Process. Technol. 90, 21–50 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Toscano, G., Riva, G., Duca, D., FoppaPedretti, E., Corinaldesi, F., Rossini, G.: Analysis of the characteristics of the residues of the wine production chain finalized to their industrial and energy recovery. Biomass Bioenergy 55, 260–267 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Celma, R., Rojas, S., Lopez-Rodriguez, F.: Waste-to-energy possibilities for industrial olive and grape by-products in Extremadura. Biomass Bioenergy 31(7), 522–534 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Toscano, G., Riva, G., Foppa Pedretti, E., Corinaldesi, F.: Evaluation of solid biomass for energy use in relation to the ash qualitative and quantitative characteristics. In: EurAgEng—agricultural and biosystems engineering for a sustainable world. Proceedings of the international conference on agricultural engineering Hersonissons, Crete, Greece. 23–25, p. 30 (2008)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Xu, R., Ferrante, L., Briend, C., Berruti, F.: Flash pyrolysis of grape residues into biofuel in a bubbling fluid bed. J. Anal. Appl. Pyrolysis 86, 58–65 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ruiz, J., Sanz, J., Gomez, J., Arauzo, J.: Pyrolysis of olive stones in different reactors. In: Proceedings 4th biomass conference of the Americas, pp. 1193–1198 (1999)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gaur, S., Reed, T.: Thermal data for natural and synthetic fuels, p. 259. Marcel Dekker, New York (1998)Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Suárez-García, F., Martínez-Alonso, A., FernándezLlorente, M., Tarascon, D.: Inorganic matter characterization in vegetable biomass feedstocks. Fuel 81, 1161–1169 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Yin, C.Y.: Prediction of higher heating values of biomass from proximate and ultimate analyses. Fuel 90, 1128–1132 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. E. Maragkaki
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • T. Kotrotsios
    • 3
  • P. Samaras
    • 4
  • A. Manou
    • 5
  • K. Lasaridi
    • 1
  • T. Manios
    • 2
    • 3
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of GeographyHarokopio UniversityAthensGreece
  2. 2.Laboratory of Solid Waste and Wastewater Management, School of Agricultural TechnologyTechnological Educational Institute of CreteHeraklion, CreteGreece
  3. 3.Specialized Health and Environment Services CompanyTM SolutionsCreteGreece
  4. 4.Department of Food TechnologyAlexander Technological Education Institute of ThessalonikiThessalonikiGreece
  5. 5.Hellenic Open UniversityPatrasGreece

Personalised recommendations