Determination of the Higher Heating Value of Pig Manure
The ability of using novel method of near-infrared (NIR) spectra to predict the composition and higher heating value (HHV) of dry pig manure was examined. Number of pig manure solid fractions variously pre-treated samples were collected in Denmark, from different pig slurry treatment plants (using mechanical or chemical–mechanical separation) and then analysed for their energy values. These values were determined by conventional method using bomb calorimetry and also calculated based on ultimate analysis. NIR spectra method was successfully applied and reasonable R2 values were obtained for the independent prediction set for nitrogen, ash, and the HHV. NIR also showed ability for predicting which type of treatment plants the samples came from. In addition, new empirical equations, based on ultimate analyses of pig manure solids used for prediction of the HHV was established.
KeywordsHigher heating value Pig manure Near-infrared Slurry Energy
This research was partially supported by The Danish Council for Strategic Research, Danish Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation, the program for sustainable energy and environment the project CLEANWASTE (Project No. J. nr. 2104-09-0056).
- 1.Gerber, P.J., Steinfeld, H., Henderson, B., Mottet, A., Opio, C., Dijkman, J., Falcucci, A., Tempio, G.: Tackling climate change through livestock: a global assessment of emissions and mitigation opportunities. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome (2013)Google Scholar
- 2.Irish Statute Book Statutory Instrument No 610/2010—European Communities (Good Agricultural Practice for Protection of Waters) Regulations http://www.irishstatutebookie/2010/en/si/0610html (2010). Accessed 18 July 2010
- 4.Jenkins, B.M.: Physical properties of biomass. In: Kitani, O., Hall, C.W. (eds.) Biomass Handbook Chap Gordon and Breach New York NY (1989)Google Scholar
- 13.Workman, J.J.: NIR spectroscopy calibration basics. In: Burns, D.A., Ciurczak. E.W., Dekker. M. (eds.) Handbook of Near Infrared Analysis, 2nd ed. New York (2001)Google Scholar
- 20.Elemental Analysis Fakultät für Chemie Mikroanalytisches Laboratorium Universitat Wien available URL http://www.univieacat/Mikrolabor/chn_enghtm#Interferenzen (2014). Accessed 18 July 2014
- 26.Jablonský, M., Ház, A., Orságová, A., Botková, M., Šmatko, L., Kočiš, J.: Relationships between elemental carbon contentsand heating values of lignins. In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference Renewable Energy Sources (2013)Google Scholar