GPS-Based Time Transfer Using Low-Cost Receivers

Abstract

GPS-based time transfer can be used to establish a traceable link between a national time standard and a remote user’s standard. Equipment cost can be a consideration in such applications, and the GPS receiver used can be a significant component of this cost. We consider the use of low-cost timing receivers in time transfer, establishing the requirements for such receivers. Three suitable receivers are characterized, using software we have written for the Open Traceable Time Platform, an open source project developing a system for legally traceable time and frequency. The tested receivers were found to be suitable for all but the most demanding applications.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6

References

  1. [1]

    D. W. Allan and M. Weiss, Accurate time and frequency transfer during common-view of a GPS satellite, Proceedings of the 34th annual frequency control symposium, Philadelphia (1980) pp. 334–356.

  2. [2]

    M. A. Lombardi, A. N. Novick and V. S. Zhang, A low-cost time transfer receiver for contributions to Coordinated Universal Time, J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol., 119 (2014) 583–601.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. [3]

    M. Gertsvolf, J. Bernard, A. Charbonneau, B. Hoger and H. Pham, Secure dissemination of traceable time, Inside GNSS, 12(3) (2017) 42–46.

    Google Scholar 

  4. [4]

    M. J. Wouters, E. L. Marais, P. T. H. Fisk and R. B. Warrington, Development and applications of a traceable time-transfer system, 2014 European frequency and time forum, Neuchâtel (2014) pp. 308–311.

  5. [5]

    M. Imae, Y. Fujii, Y. Mitamoto, T. Suzuyama, T. Kawakami, H. Yoshida, H. Hurukawa and M. Susumu, Development of a GPS common-view terminal for time and frequency remote calibration service, Proceedings of 2010 international symposium on GPS/GNSS, Taipei (2010) pp. 1–5.

  6. [6]

    http://www.openttp.org. Accessed 1 Sept 2018.

  7. [7]

    P. Defraigne and G. Petit, CGGTTS-version 2E: an extended standard for GNSS time transfer, Metrologia, 52(6) (2015) G1–G22.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. [8]

    RINEX the receiver independent exchange format v3.03 (2015).

  9. [9]

    A. Harmegnies, P. Defraigne and G. Petit, Combining GPS and GLONASS in all in view for time transfer, Metrologia, 50(3) (2013) 277–287.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. [10]

    ftp://ftp2.bipm.org/pub/tai/publication/gnsscalibration/guidelines/bipmcalibration_guidelines_v32.pdf. Accessed 1 Sept 2018.

  11. [11]

    P. Dabove and A. M. Manzino, GPS & GLONASS mass-market receivers: positioning performances and peculiarities, Sensors, 14(12) (2014) 22159–22179.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. [12]

    R. Odolinski and P. J. G. Teunissen, Low-cost, 4-system, precise GNSS positioning: a GPS, Galileo, BDS and QZSS ionosphere-weighted RTK analysis, Meas. Sci. Technol., 28 (2017) 125801.

    ADS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. [13]

    http://www.rtklib.com. Accessed 1 Sept 2018.

  14. [14]

    M. J. Wouters, E. L. Marais, A. S. Gupta, A. S. bin Omar and P. Phoonthong, The Open Traceable Time Platform and its application in finance and telecommunications, Int. J. Elec. Eng., in press (2019).

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Michael J. Wouters.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Disclaimer: Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favouring by the Commonwealth of Australia or any agency thereof.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Wouters, M.J., Marais, E.L. GPS-Based Time Transfer Using Low-Cost Receivers. MAPAN 34, 521–528 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12647-019-00322-y

Download citation

Keywords

  • GPS receiver
  • Time transfer
  • Traceability