Respiratory Health of School Children in Relation to Their Body Mass Index (BMI) During Crop Residue Burning Events in North Western India
- 114 Downloads
Particulate matter levels and physiological parameters of 150 school going children were monitored continually for 3 years (2013–2016) at three agriculturally active sites. Percent changes in physiological parameters like forced vital capacity, peak expiratory flow, etc. were estimated using mixed effect model with adjustment of covariates such as BMI. Results show that the increase in fine PM levels were much more in rice seasons than in wheat seasons. During the burning episodes, severe adverse effects on physiological parameters of the selected subjects were observed due to enhanced PM2.5 levels. Significant changes were observed in FVC (− 5.27 to − 7.53%) and PEF (− 4.89 to − 7.12%) in comparison to FEV1 and FEF25–75%. Respiratory health in terms of FVC and PEF corresponded very well with the body mass indices of the human subjects for different PM levels in the ambient air. The subjects having lower BMI level were affected more than those with normal and high BMI on exposure to same level of fine particulate matter. It has been concluded that the trends of fall in respiratory parameters were alarming especially for the subjects with lower and higher BMI during crop residue burning episodes.
KeywordsCrop residue burning Physiological parameters Ambient particulate matter Wheat and rice crops Body mass index
Authors are thankful to Director, Thapar University, Patiala for providing support.
Authors acknowledge the research grant provided by Indian Council of Medical Research (Govt. of India) for this research work.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) committee with Reference No. 5/8/4-03-Env-1/0-NCD-I and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Written Informed Consent forms were collected from selected children (duly signed by school authorities and their parents) prier to involvement in study.
- R. Agarwal, A. Awasthi, N. Singh, S.K. Mittal, P.K. Gupta, Epidemiological Study on Healthy Subjects Affected by Agriculture Crop-Residue Burning Episodes and Its Relation with Their Pulmonary Function Tests, International Journal of Environment Health Research, 23 (2013) 281–295.Google Scholar
- S. Tripathi, R.N. Singh, S. Sharma, Emissions from Crop/Biomass Residue Burning Risk to Atmospheric Quality, International Journal of Earth Sciences, 1 (2013) 24–30.Google Scholar
- K.C. Thumarty, S.R. Rodda, J. Singhal, R. Gopalakrishnan, C.S. Jha, G.D. Parsi, V.K. Dhadwal, Spatio-temporal Characterization of Agriculture Residue Burning in Punjab and Haryana, India, Using MODIS and Suomi NPP VIIRS Data, Current Science, 109 (2015) 1850–1855.Google Scholar
- A. Valavanidis, K. Fiotakis, T. Vlachogianni, Airborne Particulate Matter and Human Health: Toxicological Assessment and Importance of Size and Composition of Particles for Oxidative Damage and Carcinogenic Mechanisms, Journal of Environmental Science and Health, 26 (2008) 339–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- W.J. Gauderman, E. Avol, F. Gilliand, H. Vora, D. Thomos, K. Berhane, R. McConnell, N. Kuenzli, F. Lurmann, E. Rappaport, H. Margolis, D. Bates, J. Peter, The Effect of Air Pollution on Lung Development from 10 to 18 Years of Age, The New England Journal of Medicine, 351 (2004) 1057–1067.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- A. Hicran, E.O. Gaga, T. Dogeroglu, B. Brunekreef, G. Hoek, W.V. Doorn, Effects of Ambient Air Pollution on Respiratory Tract Complaints and Airway Inflammation in Primary School Children, Science of Total Environment, 479–480 (2014) 201–209.Google Scholar
- A.L. Mulli, K.L. Timonen, A. Peter, J. Heinrich, G. Wolke, T. Lanki, G. Buzorius, W.G. Kreyling, J.D. Hortog, H.M. Brink, J. Pekkanen, Effects of Particulate Air Pollution on Blood Pressure and Heart Rate in Subjects with Cardiovascular Disease: A Multicenter Approach. Environ., Environment Health Perspective, 112 (2004) 369–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- J. Moya, C.F. Bearer, R.A. Etzel, Children’s Behaviour and Physiology and How It Affects Exposure to Environmental Contaminants, Pediatrics, 113 (2004) 996–1006.Google Scholar
- E.D. Manalia, G.T. Stathopoulosb, A. Kollintzab, I. Kalomenidisa, J.M. Emilic, C. Sotiropouloub, Z. Daniild, C. Roussosb, S.A. Papirisa, The Medical Research Council Chronic Dyspnea Score Predicts the Survival of Patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis, Respiratory Medicine, 102 (2008) 586–592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Y.H. Cheng, Comparison of the TSI Model 8520 and Grimm Series 1.108 Portable Aerosol Instruments Used to Monitor Particulate Matter in an Iron Foundry, Journal of Occupation Environment Hygiene, 5 (2008) 157–168.Google Scholar
- Y.H. Cheng, Y.S. Li, Influences of Traffic Emissions and Meteorological Conditions on Ambient PM10 and PM2.5 Levels at a Highway Toll Station, Aerosol Air Quality Research, 10 (2010) 456–462.Google Scholar
- Y.H. Cheng, Y.L. Lin, Measurement of Particle Mass Concentrations and Size Distributions in an Underground Station, Aerosol Air Quality Research, 10 (2010) 22–29.Google Scholar
- R.J. Knudson, M.D. Lebowitz, C.J. Holberg, B. Burrows, Changes in the Normal Maximal Expiratory Flow-Volume Curve with Growth and Aging, The American Review of Respiratory Disease, 127 (1983) 725–734.Google Scholar
- P.H. Quanjer, G.J. Tammeling, J.E. Cotes, O.F. Pedersen, R. Peslin, J.C. Yernault, Lung Volumes and Forced Ventilatory Flows. Report Working Party Standardization of Lung Function Tests, European Community for Steel and Coal. Official Statement of the European Respiratory Society, European Respiratory Journal, 6 (1993) 15–40.Google Scholar
- J. Rajeshwaran, E.H. Blackstone, Probability of Atrial Fibrillation After Ablation: Using a Parametric Nonlinear Temporal Decomposition Mixed Effects Model, Methods in Medical Research, 2014.Google Scholar
- K.V.S. Badrinath, T.R. Chand, Agriculture Crop Residue Burning in the Indo-Gangetic Plains—A Study Using IRSP6 WiFS Satellite Data, Current Science, 91 (2006) 1085–1089.Google Scholar
- P. Kothi, I.V. Saradhi, G.G. Pandit, A. Markwitz, V.D. Puranik, Chemical Characterization and Source Identification of Particulate Matter at an Urban Site of Navi Mumbai, India, Aerosol Air Quality Research, 11 (2011) 560–569.Google Scholar
- P. Pelsoi, M. Croci, L. Ravagnam, The Effect of Body Mass Index on Lung Volumes, Respiratory Mechanics and Gas Exchange During General Anaesthesia, Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 87 (1998) 654–660.Google Scholar
- C.B. Linares, L.O. Fuentealba, S.O. Donoso, S. Gatica, F. Klerman, S.M. Mudge, W. Gallardo, J.P. Pinaudd, R.L. Sepulveda, Source Identification, Apportionment and Toxicity of Indoor and Outdoor PM2.5 Airborne Particulates in a Region Characterised by Wood Burning, Environmental Science Processes and Impacts, 18 (2016) 575–589.Google Scholar