Validation of the Young Schema Questionnaire: Short Form 3 in Indian Population

  • Anjali JainEmail author
  • Kamlesh Singh


Young Schema Questionnaire—Short Form 3 (YSQ-S3) which measures Early Maladaptive Schema (EMS) has received limited attention in Indian context. The goal of the study was to validate the psychometric properties of YSQ-S3 in a non-clinical Indian sample using data collected from 702 participants (age range 16–55 years). Based on reliability and confirmatory factor analysis, we established that our data supported Young’s proposed 18 EMS model based on the US population. Additionally, YSQ-S3’s concurrent validity was established with standardized instruments, namely Beck Depression Inventory-II, Scale of Positive and Negative Experience, Big Five Inventory and General Health Questionnaire-12. The findings from our analyses indicated that most EMSs correlated significantly with the validity dimensions. Furthermore, our findings identified age- and gender-related differences across the 18 EMS. Our findings confirmed that YSQ-S3 is a robust psychometric tool for assessing EMS on non-clinical population, and further research is needed to establish its use on clinical population in India.


Young Schema Questionnaire Factor analysis Maladaptive schema Validity Reliability India 



The authors would like to acknowledge the efforts and contribution of Dr. Dalbir Singh, Associate Professor, Pt. N.R.S. Government College, Rohtak, Haryana, India for his support with the data collection. Authors will also like to thank Dr. Ankit Gupta, Scientist II, Arcellx, Inc., Maryland, USA for his help in editing this paper.


The authors declare that no funding was received from any source for this study.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest with regards to the research, authorship and publication of this study.

Ethical Standards

All procedures involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments.

Informed Consent

Written informed consent stating the anonymity and confidentiality of responses, volunteer participation and the use of responses for the sole use of research was obtained from all individual participants. No identifying information from the participants was collected for the study. Participation was voluntary, and participants were free to withdraw from the research at any stage.

Supplementary material

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Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 201 kb)
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Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 65 kb)


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Copyright information

© National Academy of Psychology (NAOP) India 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Humanities and Social SciencesIndian Institute of TechnologyNew DelhiIndia

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