Resilience and Self-Compassion Related with Achievement Emotions, Test Anxiety, Intolerance of Uncertainty, and Academic Achievement

Abstract

This article focuses on the interrelationships between resilience, self-compassion, achievement emotions, test anxiety, intolerance of uncertainty, and academic performance induced by examinations. The study includes a total of 202 undergraduates selected from universities in Hong Kong through convenience sampling. Students who participated in the study filled out an anonymous questionnaire. Path analyses and structural equation modeling were used in this study. The results showed that cognitive test anxiety is positively significant to self-compassion, which was also found to be a positive predictor of resilience. In fact, resilience is the strongest positive predictor of intolerance of uncertainty, which was significantly related to the factors of self-referent implications and “spoiled everything.”

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

References

  1. Albero, P., Brown, A., Eliason, S., & Wind, J. (1997): Improving Reading through the use of Multiple Intelligences. Master's Action Research.

  2. Allen, A. B., & Leary, M. R. (2010). Self-compassion, stress, and coping. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 4(2), 107–118.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Ames, C., & Archer, J. (1988) Achievement goals in the classroom: Students’ learning strategies and motivation processes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(3), 260–267.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Asmundson, G. J. G., & Carleton, R. N. (2005). Fear of pain is elevated in adults with co-occurring trauma-related stress and social anxiety symptoms. Cognitive Behavior Therapy, 34(4), 248–255.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Aspinwall, L. G. (2005). The psychology of future-oriented thinking: From achievement to proactive coping, adaptation, and aging. Motivation and Emotion, 29(4), 203–235.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Aspinwall, L. G., & Taylor, S. E. (1997). A stitch in time: Self-regulation and proactive coping. Psychological Bulletin, 121(3), 417–436.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Aurini, J., Davies, S., & Dierkes, J. (Eds.). (2013). Out of shadows: The global intensification of supplementary education. Emerald: Bingley.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Barnard, L. K., & Curry, J. F. (2012). The relationship of clergy burnout to self-compassion and other personality dimensions. Pastoral Psychology, 61(2), 149–163.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Bennett-Goleman, T. (2001). Emotional alchemy: How the mind can heal the heart. New York: Three Rivers Press.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Bray, M. (2009). Confronting the shadow education system: What government policies for what private tutoring?. Paris: UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP).

    Google Scholar 

  11. Brown, B. (1999). Soul without shame: A guide to liberating yourself from the judge within. Boston: Shambala.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Cassady, J. C., & Johnson, R. E. (2002). Cognitive test anxiety and academic performance. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 27(2), 270–295.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Chapell, M. S., Blanding, Z. B., Takahashi, M., Silverstein, M. E., Newman, B., Gubi, A., & McCann, N. (2005). Test anxiety and academic performance in undergraduate and graduate students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97(2), 268–274.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Cicchetti, D. (2003). Forward. In S. S. Luthar (Ed.), Resilience and vulnerability: Adaption in the context of childhood adversities (pp. xix–xxvii). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Curcio, G., Ferrara, M., & De Gennaro, L. (2006). Sleep loss, learning capacity and academic performance. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 10(5), 323–337.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Dugas, M. J., Buhr, K., & Ladouceur, R. (2004). The role of intolerance of uncertainty in the etiology and maintenance of generalized anxiety disorder. In R. G. Heimberg, C. L. Turk, & D. S. Mennin (Eds.), Generalized anxiety disorder: Advances in research and practice (pp. 143–163). New York: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Dugas, M. J., Freeston, M. H., Blais, F. & Ladouceur, R. (1994). Anxiety and depression in GAD patients, high and moderate worriers. Poster presented at the annual convention of the Association for the Advancement of Behavior Therapy, San Diego, CA.

  18. Dugas, M. J., & Robichaud, M. (2007). Cognitive-behavioral treatment for generalized anxiety disorder: Form science to practice. New York, NY: Routledge.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Freeston, M. H., Rhéaume, J., Letarte, H., Dugas, M. J., & Ladouceur, R. (1994). Why do people worry? Personality and Individual Differences, 17(6), 791–802.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Frenzel, A. C., Pekrun, R., & Goetz, T. (2007). Perceived learning environment and students’ emotional experiences: A multilevel analysis of mathematics classrooms. Learning and Instruction, 17(5), 478–493.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Gaudry, E., & Spielberger, C. D. (1971). Anxiety and educational achievement. New York: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Gilbert, P. (2005). Compassion and cruelty: A biopsychosocial approach. In P. Gilbert (Ed.), Compassion: Conceptualisations, research and use in psychotherapy (pp. 9–74). New York: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Greenglass, E. (2002). Proactive coping and quality of life management. In E. Frydenberg (Ed.), Beyond coping: Meeting goals, visions, and challenges (pp. 85–96). New York: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  24. Grenier, S., Barrette, A. M., & Ladouceur, R. (2005). Intolerance of uncertainty and intolerance of ambiguity: Similarities and differences. Personality and Individual Differences, 39(3), 593–600.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Hancock, D. R. (2001). Effect of test anxiety and evaluative threats on students’ achievement and motivation. The Journal of Educational Research, 94(5), 284–290.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Hanson, T. L., & Austin, G. (2003). Student health risks, resilience, and academic performance in California: Year 2 Report, Longitudinal Analyses. Los Alamitos, CA: WestEd.

    Google Scholar 

  27. Hembree, R. (1988). Correlates, causes, and treatment of test anxiety. Review of Educational Research, 58(1), 47–77.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Hollis, W. L., & Colosimo, K. (2011). Mindfulness, self-compassion, and happiness in nonmeditators: A theoretical and empirical examination. Personality and Individual Differences, 50(2), 222–227.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Kornfield, J. (1993). A path with heart. New York: Bantam Books.

    Google Scholar 

  30. Krohne, H. W. (1993). Vigilance and cognitive avoidance as concepts in coping research. In H. W. Krohne (Ed.), Attention and avoidance: Strategies in coping with aversiveness (pp. 19–50). Seattle: Hogrefe & Huber.

    Google Scholar 

  31. Leary, M. R., Tate, E. B., Adams, C. E., Allen, A. B., & Hancock, J. (2007). Self-compassion and reactions to unpleasant selfrelevant events: The implications of treating oneself kindly. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(5), 887–904.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Luthar, S. S. (2006). Resilience in development: A synthesis of research across five decades. In D. Cicchetti & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology: Risk, disorder and adaptation (pp. 740–795). New York: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  33. MacBeth, A., & Gumley, A. (2012). Exploring compassion: A metaanalysis of the association between self-compassion and psychopathology. Clinical Psychology Review, 32(6), 545–552.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Macleod, A. K., Williams, M. G., & Bekerian, D. A. (1991). Worry is reasonable: The role of explanations in pessimism about future personal events. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100(4), 478–486.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Maroldo, G. K. (1986). Shyness, boredom, and grade point average among college students. Psychological Reports, 59(2), 395–398.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Mori, I., & Baker, D. (2010). The origin of universal shadow education: What the supplemental education phenomenon tells us about the postmodern institution of education. Asia Pacific Education Review, 11(1), 36–48.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Morris, L. W., Davis, M. A., & Hutchings, C. H. (1981). Cognitive and emotional components of anxiety: Literature review and a revised worry-emotionality scale. Journal of Educational Psychology, 73(4), 541–555.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Neff, K. D. (2003a). Development and validation of a scale to measure self-compassion. Self and Identity, 2(3), 223–250.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Neff, K. D. (2003b). Self-compassion: An alternative conceptualization of a healthy attitude toward oneself. Self and Identity, 2(2), 85–102.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Neff, K. D., Hseih, Y. P., & Dejitthirat, K. (2005). Self-compassion, achievement goals, and coping with academic failure. Self and Identity, 4(3), 263–287.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Neff, K. D., Kirkpatrick, K. L., & Rude, S. S. (2007). Self-compassion and adaptive psychological functioning. Journal of Research in Personality, 41(1), 139–154.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Oludipe, B. (2009). Influence of test anxiety on performance levels on numerical tasks of secondary school physics students. Academic Leadership: Online Journal, 7(4), 1–10.

    Google Scholar 

  43. Oshio, A., Nakaya, M., Kaneko, H., & Nagamine, S. (2002). Development and validation of an Adolescent Resilience Scale. Japanese Journal of Counseling Science, 35(1), 57–65.

    Google Scholar 

  44. Pekrun, R., Goetz, T., & Perry, R. P. (2005). Achievement Emotions Questionnaire (AEQ): User’s manual. Munich: University of Munich.

    Google Scholar 

  45. Pekrun, R., & Hofmann, H. (1996). Affective and motivational processes when approaching an exam: Contrasting interindividual and intraindividual perspectives. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New York.

  46. Scales, P. C., Roehlkepartain, E. C., Neal, M., Kielsmeier, J. C., & Benson, P. L. (2006). The role of developmental assets in predicting academic achievement: A longitudinal study. Journal of Adolescence, 29(5), 692–708.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Schonwetter, D. J. (1995). An empirical investigation of effective college teaching behaviours and students difference: Lecture organization and test anxiety. Paper presented at the annual meeting 1 American Educational Research Association (San Franscisco) Canada.

  48. Schutz, P. A., & Pekrun, R. (Eds.). (2007). Emotion in education. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  49. Shapira, L. B., & Mongrain, M. (2010). The benefits of self-compassion and optimism exercises for individuals vulnerable to depression. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 5(5), 377–389.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Ungar, M. (2011). The social ecology of resilience: Addressing contextual and cultural ambiguity of a nascent construct. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 81(1), 1–17.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Waxman, H. C., & Huang, S. L. (1997) Classroom instruction and learning environment differences between effective and ineffective urban elementary schools for African American students. Urban Education, 32(1), 7–44.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Whitehead, J. (1984). Motives for higher education: A study of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in relation to academic attainment. Cambridge Journal of Education, 14(2), 26–34.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Wilson, T., Bar, Y., & Gilbert, D. (2009). The feeling of uncertainty intensifies affective reactions. The feeling of uncertainty intensifies affective reactions. Emotion, 9(1), 123–127.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Zeidner, M. (1995). Adaptive coping with test situations: A review of the literature. Educational Psychologist, 30(3), 123–133.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

Thanks for participating in this research study. The present study is to examine the relationship between resilience, self-compassion, achievement emotions, intolerance of uncertainty, test anxiety and academic achievement. Thus, you required filling in the five aspects of the rating scale in order to measure your levels of resilience, self-compassion, achievement emotions, test anxiety, and intolerance of uncertainty. There is no deception in this research as well. For all data in this research, no further action or computation after finishing this research. If you know any friends or classmates are eligible to participate in this study, please do not discuss it with them. It greatly appreciates your cooperation.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Wing Ki Tang.

Ethics declarations

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Human Research Ethics Committee.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Tang, W.K. Resilience and Self-Compassion Related with Achievement Emotions, Test Anxiety, Intolerance of Uncertainty, and Academic Achievement. Psychol Stud 64, 92–102 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12646-019-00482-6

Download citation

Keywords

  • Intolerance of uncertainty
  • Cognitive test anxiety
  • Achievement emotion
  • Resilience
  • Self-compassion
  • Academic performance