Psychological Studies

, Volume 63, Issue 3, pp 209–218 | Cite as

The Satisfaction with Job Life Scale Among Immigrants

  • Félix Neto
  • Ana Cristina Menezes Fonseca


This article reports the development of a short multi-item measurement scale of satisfaction with job life (SWJLS). This scale evaluates a person’s global assessment of job satisfaction. Two studies are presented for the purpose of establishing the reliability and validity of the SWJLS. The data were gathered among immigrants. The findings of both studies demonstrated that the SWJLS presents adequate psychometric properties. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of the SWJLS evidenced a single underlying dimension. The reliability was highly satisfactory. Corroboration of validity was also yielded between correlations among indicators of well-being and acculturation, and scale scores. The results indicate that the SWJLS is a short and viable instrument to measure job life satisfaction.


Measurement Migration Satisfaction with job life Workplace well-being 


  1. Bardo, A. R., & Yamashita, T. (2014). Validity of domain satisfaction across cohorts in the US. Social Indicators Research, 117, 367–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bergbom, B., & Kinnunen, U. (2014). Immigrants and host nationals at work: Associations of co-worker relations employee well-being. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 43, 165–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Berry, J. W., Phinney, J. S., Sam, D. L., & Vedder, P. (Eds.). (2006). Immigrant youth in cultural transition: Acculturation, identity and adaptation across nations. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  4. Chowhan, J., Zeytinoglu, I., & Cooke, G. (2016). Immigrants and job satisfaction: Do high performance work systems play a role? Economic and Industrial Democracy, 37, 690–715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cummins, R. A. (1995). On the trail of the golden standard for subjective well-being. Social Indicators Research, 35, 179–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Demes, K. A., & Geeraert, N. (2014). Measures matter: Scales for adaptation, cultural distance, and acculturation revisited. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 45, 91–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Diener, E. (2013). The remarkable changes in the science of subjective well-being. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 8, 663–666.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Diener, E. R., Emmons, R., Larsen, R., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71–75.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Diener, E., Inglehart, R., & Tay, L. (2013). Theory and validity of life satisfaction scales. Social Indicators Research, 112, 497–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Diener, E., Oishi, S., & Lucas, R. (2015). National accounts of subjective well-being. American Psychologist, 70, 234–242.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Diener, E., Sandvik, E., Seidlitz, L., & Diener, M. (1993). The relationship between income and subjective well-being—Relative or absolute. Social Indicators Research, 28, 195–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Faragher, E. B., Cass, M., & Cooper, C. L. (2005). The relationship between job satisfaction and health: A meta-analysis. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 62, 105–112.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Field, A. (2000). Discovering statistics: Using SPSS for windows. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  14. Furnham, A. (1992). Personality at work. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  15. Goodwin, R., Cook, O., & Yung, Y. (2001). Loneliness and life satisfaction among three cultural groups. Personal Relationships, 8, 225–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria fit indices in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternative. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Judge, T. A., & Kammeyer-Mueller, J. D. (2012). Job attitudes. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 341–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kaplan, S. A., Warren, C. R., Barsky, A. P., & Thoresen, C. J. (2009). A note on the relationship between affect(ivity) and differing conceptualisations of job satisfaction: Some unexpected meta-analytic findings. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 18, 29–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kerlinger, F., & Lee, H. (2000). Foundations of behavioural research. New York: International Thompson Publishing.Google Scholar
  20. Kline, P. (2000). The handbook of psychological testing (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  21. Neto, F. (1992). Loneliness among Portuguese adolescents. Social Behavior and Personality, 20, 15–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Neto, F. (1993). Satisfaction with life scale: Psychometric properties in an adolescent sample. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 22, 125–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Neto, F. (1995). Predictors of satisfaction with life among second generation immigrants. Social Indicators Research, 35, 93–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Neto, F. (2002). Loneliness and acculturation among adolescents from immigrant families in Portugal. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32, 630–647.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Neto, F. (2005). The satisfaction with love life scale. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 38, 2–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Neto, F. (2012). The satisfaction with sex life scale. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 45, 18–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Neto, F. (2014). Psychometric analysis of the short-form UCLA loneliness scale (ULS-6) in older adults. European Journal of Ageing, 11, 313–319.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. Neto, F., Barros, J., & Barros, A. (1990). Satisfação com a vida. In L. Almeida, R. Santiago, P. Silva, L. Oliveira, O. Caetano, & J. Marques (Eds.), A acção educativa: Análise psico-social (pp. 91–100). Leiria: ESEL./APPORT.Google Scholar
  29. Neto, F., & Fonseca, A. C. (2016). The satisfaction with migration life scale. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 54, 47–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Neto, F., & Wilks, D. (2017). Predictors of psychological adaptation of Cape Verdean students in Portugal. Journal of College Student Development, 58, 1087–1100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Oishi, S., & Diener, E. (2001). Re-examining the general positively model of subjective well-being: The discrepancy between specific and global domain satisfaction. Journal of Personality, 69, 641–666.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Pavot, W., & Diener, E. (2008). The satisfaction with life scale and the emerging construct of life satisfaction. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 3, 137–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Robins, R. W., Hendin, H. M., & Trzesniewski, K. H. (2001). Measuring global self-esteem: Construct validation of a single measure and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 151–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ruiz, M. F., Neto, F., Munoz Sastre, M. T., Salvatore, N., Rivière, S., & Mullet, E. (2009). Life domain satisfaction: A Portugal–France comparison. Social Indicators Research, 94, 173–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Russell, D., Peplau, L., & Cutrona, C. (1980). The revised UCLA loneliness scale: Concurrent and discriminate validity evidence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 472–480.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Russell, D., Peplau, L., & Ferguson, M. (1978). Developing a measure of loneliness. Journal of Personality Assessment, 42, 290–294.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Salvatore, N., & Muñoz-Sastre, M. T. (2001). Life appraisal: “Area” versus “dimension” conceptualizations. Social Indicators Research, 53, 229–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Shin, D., & Johnson, D. (1978). Avowed happiness as an overall assessment of quality of life. Social Indicators Research, 5, 474–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Spector, P. E. (1997). Job satisfaction: Application, assessment, causes, and consequences. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  41. Valdivia, C., & Flores, L. Y. (2012). Factors affecting the job satisfaction of Latino/a immigrants in the Midwest. Journal of Career Development, 39, 31–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Vallerand, R. J., & Boissonnette, R. (1990). Construction et validation de l’Échelle de Satisfaction dans les Études. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 22, 295–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Warr, P. (1990). The measurement of well-being and other aspects of mental health. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 63, 193–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Warr, P. (2007). Work, happiness, and unhappiness. Erlbaum/Routledge: New York. NY.Google Scholar
  45. Warr, P., Cook, J., & Wall, T. (1979). Scales for the measurement of some work attitudes and aspects of psychological well-being. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 52, 129–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Warr, P., & Inceoglu, I. (2012). Job engagement, job satisfaction, and contrasting associations with person-job fit. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 17, 129–138.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Wilks, D. C., & Neto, F. (2013). Workplace well-being, gender and age: Examining the “double jeopardy” effect. Social Indicators Research, 114, 875–890.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Zabriske, R. B., & Ward, P. (2013). Satisfaction with family life scale. Marriage & Family Review, 49, 446–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© National Academy of Psychology (NAOP) India 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculdade de Psicologia e de Ciências da EducaçãoUniversidade do PortoPortoPortugal

Personalised recommendations