Psychological Studies

, Volume 62, Issue 3, pp 241–249 | Cite as

Effects of Cultural Orientation, Self-Esteem, and Collective Self-Esteem on Well-Being

  • Ayano Yamaguchi
  • Satoshi Akutsu
  • Atsushi Oshio
  • Min-Sun Kim
Review Article


This study examined a model of independent and interdependent self-construal, individual and collective self-esteem, and subjective well-being in a sample of college students from the mainland USA, Hawaii, and Japan. Specifically, the mediation role of individual as well as collective self-esteem in the effects of independent and interdependent self-construal on subjective well-being was explored. Results indicated that the hypothesized model fit well. The study found the direct effects of independent self-construal on subjective well-being in all three cultural groups. Collective self-esteem was a significant mediator of the effects of both independent and interdependent self-construal on subjective well-being only in the mainland USA. The negative effect of interdependent self-construal on collective self-esteem was observed only in the mainland USA. Better understanding of both universal and culture-specific aspects of collective self-esteem in promoting subjective well-being seems essential for further theoretical development as well as effective prevention/intervention efforts across three cultural groups.


Collective self-esteem Self-esteem Cultural orientation Well-being 



The authors thank the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research B (25285113), Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research C (17K04376), and Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research C (15K04142).


  1. Akaike, H. (1973). Information theory and an extension of the maximum likelihood principle, In B. N. Petrov & F. Caski (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2nd International Symposium on Information Theory (pp. 267–281). Budapest: Akademiai Kiado.Google Scholar
  2. Arbuckle, J. L. (2009). AMOS (Version 7.0) [Computer Program]. Chicago: SPSS.Google Scholar
  3. Bentler, P. M. (1990). Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psychological Bulletin, 107(2), 46–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bollen, K. A. (1990). Overall fit in covariance structure models: Two types of sample size effects. Psychological Bulletin, 107(2), 59–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cameron, J. E. (1999). Social identity and the pursuit of possible selves: Implications for the psychological subjective well-being of university students. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 3(3), 179–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cross, S. E., Bacon, P. L., & Morris, M. L. (2000). The relational-interdependent self-construal and relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78(4), 791–808.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Heine, S. J., Lehman, D. R., Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1999). Is there a universal need for positive self-regard? Psychological Review, 106(4), 766–794.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6(1), 1–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kitayama, S., & Markus, H. R. (2000). The pursuit of happiness and the realization of sympathy: Cultural patterns of self, social relations, and subjective well-being. In E. Diener & E. M. Suh (Eds.), Culture and subjective well-being (pp. 113–161). Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  10. Kitayama, S., Mesquita, B., & Karasawa, M. (2006). Cultural affordances and emotional experience: Socially engaging and disengaging emotions in Japan and the United States. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91(5), 890–903.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Leung, T., & Kim, M. S. (1997). A revised self-construal scale. Honolulu: Department of Speech, University of Hawaii at Manoa.Google Scholar
  12. Lu, L., & Gilmour, R. (2006). Individual-oriented and socially oriented cultural conceptions of subjective well-being: Conceptual analysis and scale development. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 9(1), 36–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Luhtanen, R., & Crocker, J. (1992). A collective self-esteem scale: self-evaluation of one’s social identity. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 18(13), 302–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 98(2), 224–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1994). A collective fear of the collective: Implications for selves and theories of selves. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 20(5), 568–579.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Mesquita, B., & Karasawa, M. (2002). Different emotional lives. Cognition and Emotion, 16(1), 127–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Morling, B., Kitayama, S., & Miyamoto, Y. (2002). Cultural practices emphasize influence in the United States and adjustment in Japan. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28(3), 311–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Oishi, S., & Diener, E. (2001). Goals, culture, and subjective well-being. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27(12), 1674–1682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Sharma, S., Mukherjee, S., Kumar, A., & Dillon, W. R. (2005). A simulation study to investigate the use of cutoff values for assessing model fit in covariance structure models. Journal of Business Research, 58(7), 935–943.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Tajfel, H. (1981). Human groups and social categories: Studies in social psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  22. Tajfel, H., & Turner, J. C. (1986). The social identity theory of inter-group behavior. In S. Worchel & L. W. Austin (Eds.), Psychology of intergroup relations. Nelson-Hall: Chicago.Google Scholar
  23. Uchida, Y., Kitayama, S., & Mesquita, B. (2008). Is perceived emotional support beneficial? Subjective well-being and health in independent and interdependent cultures. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34(6), 741–754.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Vignoles, V. L., Regalia, C., Manzi, C., Golledge, J., & Scabini, E. (2006). Beyond self-esteem: Influence of multiple motives on identity construction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90(2), 308–333.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Yamaguchi, A., & Kim, M. (2015). Effects of self-construal and its relationship with subjective well-being across cultures. Journal of Health Psychology, 20(1), 13–26.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© National Academy of Psychology (NAOP) India 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ayano Yamaguchi
    • 1
  • Satoshi Akutsu
    • 2
  • Atsushi Oshio
    • 3
  • Min-Sun Kim
    • 4
  1. 1.College of Community and Human ServicesRikkyo UniversitySaitamaJapan
  2. 2.Graduate School of International Corporate Strategy (ICS)Hitotsubashi UniversityKunitachiJapan
  3. 3.Faculty of Letters, Arts and SciencesWaseda UniversityShinjukuJapan
  4. 4.CommunicologyUniversity of Hawaii at ManoaHonoluluUSA

Personalised recommendations