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Is Time Perspective a Predictor of Anxiety and Perceived Stress? Some Preliminary Results from Greece

Abstract

In the current studies, we explore the relationship between anxiety / perceived stress and time perspectives. Study 1 tested the relationship between the dimensions of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) and anxiety in a male sample. Study 2 examined the relationship between time perspectives and perceived stress in a sample of students. Both studies considered the Deviation of the Balanced Time Perspective (DBTP). In Study 1 psychiatrists of the Mental Health Centre of the Armed Forces in Athens diagnosed generalised anxiety in a number of male participants of the overall sample (n = 204). All participants completed a validated Greek translation of the ZTPI. In Study 2 a sample of students (n = 71) of Panteion University completed the Greek translations of the ZTPI and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14 items). In Study 1 a negative correlation between Future orientation and anxiety was found. The DBTP was higher in persons with anxiety. In Study 2 the Past Negative and Present Fatalistic orientations correlated with high-perceived stress as assumed. Furthermore, high-perceived stress was associated with a higher DBTP. The ZTPI is particularly important for the explanation of perceived stress. DBTP, Past Negative and Present Fatalistic perspectives are important factors of influence. The measurement of anxiety should be re-examined.

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Notes

  1. “According to Zimbardo and Boyd (2008), Stolarski et al. (2011) and Zhang et al. (2013) defined optimal scores as 1.95 (PN), 4.6 (PP), 1.5 (PF), 3.9 (PH) and 4 (F)” (Vowinckel 2012, p.13).

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Acknowledgments

We would like to thank Prof. Dr. Effi Lambropoulou of the Panteion University of Athens (Department of Social Sciences) for her valuable support in enabling and organizing data-collection at her institution.

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No financial support was received for this study.

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Correspondence to Julie Papastamatelou.

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The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Ethics

Ethical standards were given by the approval of the institutional review boards of the Mental Health Centre of the Armed Forces in Athens and Panteion University, Athens, Greece. All participants were informed about the study.

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Papastamatelou, J., Unger, A., Giotakos, O. et al. Is Time Perspective a Predictor of Anxiety and Perceived Stress? Some Preliminary Results from Greece. Psychol Stud 60, 468–477 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12646-015-0342-6

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12646-015-0342-6

Keywords

  • Zimbardo time perspective inventory (ZTPI)
  • Time perspectives
  • Generalised anxiety disorder
  • Perceived stress scale
  • Perceived stress