Goal Orientations and Tendency to Neutralize Academic Cheating: An Ecological Perspective

Abstract

This study examined the phenomenon of academic cheating while focusing on the unique and interactive effects of sociocultural variables on academic motivation, goal orientation and self-efficacy perception of 221 Muslim and Jewish female students. A mixed quantitative and qualitative research design with Multivariate-Analysis of Covariance, Step-wise Discriminant Function Analysis, Path Analysis and semi-structured interviews have been used to clarify the data obtained in various scales. Path Analysis indicated that the main factor predicting the tendency to neutralize academic cheating was the performance goal of pleasing parents mediated by extrinsic motivation. Further analysis showed between-ethnic-groups differences with Muslim students being more extrinsically motivated by the performance goal of pleasing the parents. Content analysis of the interviews conducted with 22 students showed that, in contrast to the Jewish students’ individualistic perspective, Muslim students' collective perspective put them under tremendous pressure to succeed due to the rippling effect of success on all spheres of life e.g., family’s honor, community standing, and future marriage prospects.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1

Notes

  1. 1.

    Mizrahi nowadays refers to Arab and Sepharadic Jews who immigrated from Muslim countries in Asia and Africa. The Mizrahi living in the periphery of Israel are characterized by low education and low SES.

References

  1. Abu-Baker K (2005) The impact of social values on the psychology of gender among Arab couples: a view from psychotherapy. Psychiatry Related Science 42:106–115

    Google Scholar 

  2. Abu-Rabia A (2000) Employment and unemployment among the Negev Bedouin. Nomadic Peoples 4:84–93

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Abu-Zeid AH (1965) Honour and shame: The values of Mediterranean society. Weidenfeld, London

    Google Scholar 

  4. Al-Haj M (1995) Education, empowerment and control: The case of the Arabs in Israel. SUNY, New York

    Google Scholar 

  5. Al-Haj M (2003) Higher education among the Arabs in Israel: formal policy between empowerment and control. Higher Education Policy 16:351–368

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Baker SR (2004) Intrinsic, extrinsic and anti-motivational orientations: their role in university adjustment, stress, well-being and subsequent academic performance. Current Psychology Developmental 23:189–202

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Bandura A (1986) The explanatory and predictive scope of self-efficacy theory. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 4:359–373

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Bandura A (1997) Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. Freeman, New York

    Google Scholar 

  9. Barakat, H. (2000) Arab Society in the twentieth century: A study in the change of situation and relations. Beirut Center of Arab Unity Research. (Arabic)

  10. Bennett R (2005) Factors associated with student plagiarism in post-1992 University. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education 30:137–162

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Bentler PM (1995) EQS structural equations program manual. Multivariate Software, Inc., Encino

    Google Scholar 

  12. Blumer H (1969) Symbolic interactionism. Prentice Hall, Englewoods Cliffs

    Google Scholar 

  13. Brewer EW, Burgess DN (2005) Professor’s role in motivating students to attend class. Journal of Industrial Teacher Education 42:937–942

    Google Scholar 

  14. Bronfenbrenner U (1979) The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Harvard University Press, Cambridge

    Google Scholar 

  15. Council for Higher Education. (2009). Planning and Budgeting Committee 34/35 report. Retrieved July 20, 2010 from http://www.che.org.il/download/files /contents_1.pdf (Hebrew)

  16. Creswell JW (2003) Research design: qualitative, quantitative, and mixed method approaches, 2nd edn. Sage, Thousand Oaks

    Google Scholar 

  17. Denzin NK (2001) Interpretive interactionism, 2nd edn. Sage, Newbury Park

    Google Scholar 

  18. Diamantopoulos A, Siguaw JA (2000) Introducing Lisrel: A guide for the uninitiated. Sage, Los Angeles

    Google Scholar 

  19. Diekhoff GM, LaBeff EE, Clark RE, Williams LE, Francis B, Haines VJ (1996) College cheating: ten years later. Research in Higher Education 37:487–502

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Dwairy M (1997) Addressing the repressed needs of the Arabic client. Cultural Diversity and Mental Health 3:1–12

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Eccles JS (1983) Expectancies, values, and academic behaviors. In: Spence JT (ed) Achievement and achievement motives: Psychological and sociological approaches. Freeman, San Francisco, pp 75–146

    Google Scholar 

  22. Edelman M (2000) The new Israeli constitution. Middle Eastern Studies 36:1–27

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Elliot A, Harackiewicz J (1996) Approach and avoidance achievement goals and intrinsic motivation: a mediational analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 70:461–475

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Fawkner M, Keremidchieva G (2004) Plagiarism, cheating and academic dishonesty – have you been there? Information & Security: An International Journal 14:113–137

    Google Scholar 

  25. Finn KV, Frone MR (2004) Academic performance and cheating: moderating role of school identification and self-efficacy. The Journal of Educational Research 97:115–121

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Francis B (2005) British-Chinese pupils’ and parents’ constructions of the value of education. Research papers from the School of Education. Roehampton University, U.K

    Google Scholar 

  27. Franklyn-Stokes A, Newstead S (1995) Undergraduate cheating: who does what and why? Studies in Higher Education 20:159–172

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Gracia L (2007) Academic dishonesty – whose fault is it anyway? Teaching Research and Development Project: Final Report. Warwick University, U.K

    Google Scholar 

  29. Haines VJ, Diekhoff GM, LaBeff EE, Clark RC (1986) College cheating: immaturity, lack of commitment, and the neutralizing attitude. Research in Higher Education 25:342–354

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Haj-Yahia M (1997) Toward culturally sensitive intervention with Arab families in Israel. Contemporary Family Therapy 17:429–447

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Hard SF, Conway JM, Moran AC (2006) Faculty and college student beliefs about the frequency of student academic misconduct. Journal of Higher Education 77:1058–1080

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Harding T, Mayhew M, Finelli C, Carpenter D (2007) The theory of planned behavior as a model of academic dishonesty in humanities and engineering undergraduates. Ethics & Behavior 17:255–279

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Hershkovitz S (2000) Expanding access to higher education. The Commission for Higher Education, Planning and Budget Committee, Jerusalem, Hebrew

    Google Scholar 

  34. Hickey DT, Granade J (2004) The influence of sociocultural theory on our theories of engagement and motivation. In: McInerney DM, Van Etten S (eds) Big theories revisited: Research on sociocultural influences on motivation and learning, vol 4. Information Age, Greenwich, pp 223–247

    Google Scholar 

  35. Hickey DT, McCaslin M (2001) Comparative and sociocultural analyses of context and motivation. In: Volet SS, Järvelä S (eds) Motivation in learning contexts: Theoretical and methodological implications. Pergamon/Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 33–56

    Google Scholar 

  36. Hirschi T (1969) Causes of delinquency. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles

    Google Scholar 

  37. Hofstede G (1991) Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. McGraw-Hill, London

    Google Scholar 

  38. Holsti OR (1969) Content analysis for the social sciences and humanities. Addison-Wesley, Reading

    Google Scholar 

  39. Karipidis, R. (2002). Aren’t they good enough? What’s holding them back? Re-envisioning education and democracy public intellectual essay. Retrieved from http://www.macalester.edu/courses/educ59/PIE/Karipidis-%20PIE.htm

  40. Knesset Research and Information Centre. (2010). Employment among Arab female academics. Retrieved December 21, 2010 from http://www.knesset.gov.il/mmm/data/pdf/m02443.pdf (Hebrew)

  41. Layish A (1992) The Arabs in Israel: Continuity and change. Institution for Arab Studies, Givat Haviva, Hebrew

    Google Scholar 

  42. Levy, R., & Bocks, B. (2012). A growing dangerous to academy world. Purchasing and copying academic studies. Retrieved May 2, 2012 from Bar Ilan University Internet Magazine: http://www.barilan-magazine.co.il/ (Hebrew)

  43. Midgley C (ed) (2002) Goals, goal structures, and patterns of adaptive learning. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Mahwah

    Google Scholar 

  44. Midgley C, Maehr ML, Hruda LZ, Anderman E, Anderman L, Freeman KE, Gheen M, Kaplan A, Kumar R, Middleton MJ, Nelson J, Rosser R, Urdan T (2000) Manual for the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scales (PALS). University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Retrieved from http://www.umich.edu/~pals/manuals.html

    Google Scholar 

  45. Mikulincer M, Weller A, Florian V (1993) Sense of closeness to parents and family rulers: a study of Arab and Jewish youth in Israel. International Journal of Psychology 28:323–335

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Miller KA (1988) Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. Contemporary Sociology 17:253–253

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Moneta GB (2004) The flow model of intrinsic motivation in Chinese: cultural and personal moderators. Journal of Happiness Studies 5:181–217

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Muhand M (2005) Local elections in the Arab Palestinian minority in Israel: The strengthening of the clans and fall of the parties. In: Rekhes E, Ozacky-Lazar S (eds) Municipal elections in the Arab and Druze Sectors (2003): Clans, ethnic groups and parties. Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, pp 18–24

    Google Scholar 

  49. Murdock T, Anderman E (2006) Motivational perspectives on student cheating: toward an integrated model of academic dishonesty. Educational Psychologist 41:129–145

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Murdock T, Hale N, Weber M (2001) Predictors of cheating among early adolescents: academic and social motivations. Contemporary Educational Psychology 26:96–115

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Nonis S, Swift C (2001) An examination of the relationship between academic dishonesty and workplace dishonesty: a multicampus investigation. The Journal of Education for Business 77:69–77

    Article  Google Scholar 

  52. Panelo ND (2010) The model minority student: Asian American students and the relationships between acculturation to Western values, family pressures, and mental health concerns. The Vermont Connection 31:147–155

    Google Scholar 

  53. Passow HJ, Mayhew MJ, Finelli CJ, Harding TS, Carpenter DO (2007) Factors influencing engineering students’ decisions to cheat by type of assessment. Research in Higher Education 47:643–684

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Patton M (2002) Qualitative research and evaluation methods, 3rd edn. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks

    Google Scholar 

  55. Peled, Y., Barczyk, C., Eshet, Y., & Grinautski, K. (2012). Learning motivation and student academic dishonesty: A comparison between face-to-face and online courses. In Proceedings of society for information technology & teacher education international conference, 25 October 2012 (pp. 752–759). Chesapeake: AACE

  56. Philips M, Horton V (2000) Cybercheating: has morality evaporated in business education? International Journal of Educational Management 14:150–155

    Article  Google Scholar 

  57. Pintrich P, Schunk D (2002) Motivation in education: Theory, research, and applications. Prentice Hall Merrill, Englewood Cliffs

    Google Scholar 

  58. Pintrich P, Smith D, Garcia T, Mckeachie W (1993) Reliability and predictive validity of the motivated strategies for learning questionnaire (MSLQ). Educational and Psychological Measurement 53:801–813

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Rabideau, S. T. (2005). Effects of achievement motivation on behavior. Retrieved from http://www.personalityresearch.org/papers/rabideau.html

  60. Rocha, M., & Teixeira, A. (2005). Crime without punishment: an update review of the determinants of cheating among University students. FEP Working Papers no. 191. Retrieved May 20, 2010, from http://www.fep.up.pt/investigacao/workingpapers/05.10.14_WP191_brand aoteixeira.pdf

  61. Ryan R, Deci E (2000) Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology 25:54–67

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Scott MB, Lyman SM (1968) Accounts. American Sociological Review 31:46–62

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. Smith K, Davy J, Easterling D (2004) An examination of cheating and its antecedents among marketing and management majors. Journal of Business Ethics 50:63–80

    Article  Google Scholar 

  64. Stephens J, Young M, Calbrese T (2007) Does moral judgment go offline when students are online? A comparative analysis of undergraduates’ beliefs and behaviors related to conventional and digital cheating. Ethics & Behavior 17:233–254

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. Strauss A (1987) Qualitative analysis for social scientists. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

    Book  Google Scholar 

  66. Sykes G, Matza D (1957) Techniques of neutralization: a theory of delinquency. American Sociological Review 22:664–670

    Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Topalli V (2005) When being good is bad: an expansion of neutralization theory. Criminology 43:797–835

    Article  Google Scholar 

  68. Vansteenkiste M, Lens W, Deci EL (2006) Intrinsic versus extrinsic goal contents in self- determination theory: another look at the quality of academic motivation. Educational Psychologist 41:19–31

    Article  Google Scholar 

  69. Vygotsky LS (1978) Mind in society. Harvard University Press, Cambridge

    Google Scholar 

  70. Walker C, Greene B, Mansell R (2006) Identification with academics, intrinsic/extrinsic motivation, and self-efficacy as predictors of cognitive engagement. Learning and Individual Differences 16:1–12

    Article  Google Scholar 

  71. Wentzel KR, Watkins DE (2002) Peer-relationships and collaborative learningas contexts for academic enablers. School Psychology Review 31:366–377

    Google Scholar 

  72. Whitley B Jr, Keith-Spiegel P (2002) Academic dishonesty: An educator’s guide. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah

    Google Scholar 

  73. Wigfield A, Eccles J (1992) The development of achievement task values: a theoretical analysis. Developmental Review 12:265–310

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Dorit Alt.

Additional information

Dorit Alt and Brenda Geiger for joint and equal authorship.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Alt, D., Geiger, B. Goal Orientations and Tendency to Neutralize Academic Cheating: An Ecological Perspective. Psychol Stud 57, 404–416 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12646-012-0161-y

Download citation

Keywords

  • Academic cheating
  • Academic goal orientation
  • Academic motivations
  • Academic self-efficacy