Neurotoxicity Research

, Volume 36, Issue 3, pp 627–644 | Cite as

Unequivocal Biomarker for Parkinson’s Disease: A Hunt that Remains a Pester

  • Alika Sarkar
  • Neeraj Rawat
  • Nidhi Sachan
  • Mahendra Pratap SinghEmail author


Devastating motor features, lack of early prognostic tools, and absence of undeviating therapies call for an endeavor to develop biomarkers for Parkinson’s disease (PD). A biomarker is anticipated to help in timely and selective diagnosis as well as to hunt for an appropriate treatment option. Peripheral fingerprints can be used to assess the progression, distinguish PD from other related disorders, and monitor the efficacy of therapeutic options. From the last two decades, peripheral blood is constantly targeted in search of an appropriate marker owing to minimal invasive procedure for collection, highly dynamic nature, and insignificant ethical concern. Besides, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is also preferred because of its close proximity to the brain. Employing conventional and contemporary sophisticated devices, a number of protein and non-protein entities, mainly metallic elements, have been shown to hold adequate potential to be used as biomarkers for monitoring progression and assessing treatment options for such a distressing neurodegenerative disorder. Classical strategies and relatively newer sophisticated tools, such as proteomics, deciphered the presence of an altered level of highly specific blood- and CSF-specific proteins, free metals, metal-binding proteins, common inflammatory proteins, and overexpressed/modified α-synuclein in PD patients. While several chemical entities are shown to be associated, not even a single protein or metal is converted into unambiguous disease fingerprint. The article provides an update on proteins and metals that are shown to possess enormous potential in the course of biomarker exploration but are unable to deliver a reliable indicator. The review also sheds light on the reasons of ineffective hit to hunt for an authentic fingerprint and proposes the doable ways to translate the output into reality.


Parkinson’s disease Biomarkers Proteins Metals 



The Department of Biotechnology, India, provided junior research fellowship to Alika Sarkar and Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, India, to Neeraj Rawat. Authors sincerely acknowledged the abovementioned agencies. The CSIR-IITR communication number of the article is 3587.

Authors’ Contribution

The idea was conceived by Mahendra Pratap Singh Alika Sarkar, Neeraj Rawat and Nidhi Sachan collected the information. Alika Sarkar and Neeraj Rawat wrote the initial draft of manuscript. Nidhi Sachan and Alika Sarkar contributed in making the figure. Mahendra Pratap Singh comprehensively revised the manuscript. All authors have seen and finalized the manuscript and concur with its content.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Toxicogenomics and Predictive Toxicology Laboratory, Systems Toxicology and Health Risk Assessment GroupCSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (CSIR-IITR)LucknowIndia
  2. 2.Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR)LucknowIndia

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