Neurotoxicity Research

, Volume 34, Issue 3, pp 375–387 | Cite as

L-Theanine Decreases Orofacial Dyskinesia Induced by Reserpine in Rats

  • Hung-Sheng Soung
  • Mao-Hsien Wang
  • Kuo-Chi Chang
  • Cheng-Neng Chen
  • Yi Chang
  • Chih-Chuan Yang
  • Hsiang-Chien Tseng


Reserpine (RES)-induced orofacial dyskinesia (OD) has been used as an animal model for human tardive dyskinesia (TD) for decades, due to its strong pathophysiological association with striatal oxidative stress and neural cytoarchitecture alteration. L-Theanine (LT), one of the major amino acid components in green tea, has potent antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. In this study, we examined the potential protective effects of LT on RES-induced behavioral and neurochemical dysfunction in rats. RES treatment (1 mg/kg s.c., 3 injections 1 day apart) induced significant increases (p < 0.001) in the frequency of vacuous chewing movements (VCM), tongue protrusion (TP), as well as the duration of facial twitching (FT). LT treatment (100, 300 mg/kg orally for 14 days, starting 10 days before RES injection) was able to prevent most of the RES-induced OD. Moreover, LT treatment reduced the RES-induced lipid peroxidation (LPO) production, increased the antioxidation power and catecholamines in the striatum, and significantly reduced the levels of neuroinflammatory and apoptotic markers. Our results indicated that LT was able to counteract the increased oxidative damage, neurotransmitter deficiency, neuroinflammation, and apoptosis induced by RES, and these results have demonstrated the possible neuroprotective effects of LT against RES-induced OD, including antioxidation, neurochemical deficiency prevention, antineuroinflammation, and antiapoptosis. These findings, therefore, suggest a potential role for LT to have a clinically relevant therapeutic effect in delaying or treating human TD.


L-Theanine Orofacial dyskinesia Reserpine Striatum 







facial twitching






lipid peroxidation


monoamine oxidase




orofacial dyskinesia


Parkinson disease




superoxide dismutase




thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance


tardive dyskinesia


tumor necrosis factor α


tongue protrusion


vacuous chewing movements


vesicular monoamine transporter





The authors thank Persistent BioMed Editing services located in Philadelphia, USA, for their valuable editing and proofreading of the current manuscript.

Funding Information

This study was supported by the Yuan-Shan Br. of Taipei Veteran General Hospital (YSVH-10505), Mackay Memorial Hospital (MMH-105-69), and Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital (SKH-8302-104-DR-24).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryYuan-Shan Br. of Taipei Veteran General HospitalYilan CountyRepublic of China
  2. 2.Department of AnesthesiaEn Chu Kon HospitalNew Taipei CityRepublic of China
  3. 3.Department of Chemical Engineering and BiotechnologyNational Taipei University of TechnologyTaipeiRepublic of China
  4. 4.Division of Neurosurgery, Department of SurgeryTaitung Br. of Mackay Memorial HospitalTaitungRepublic of China
  5. 5.Department of AnesthesiologyShin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial HospitalTaipei CityRepublic of China
  6. 6.Department of NeurosurgeryMackay Memorial HospitalTaipeiRepublic of China
  7. 7.School of MedicineFu Jen Catholic UniversityNew Taipei CityRepublic of China

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