Memory Impairment Induced by Sodium Fluoride is Associated with Changes in Brain Monoamine Levels

Abstract

Previous studies suggest that sodium fluoride (NaF) can impair performance in some memory tasks, such as open-field habituation and two-way active avoidance. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of NaF intake (100 ppm in drinking water for 30 days) and its short-term (15 days) withdrawal on open-field habituation and brain monoamine level. Adult male rats were allocated to three groups: tap water (NaF 1.54 ppm) for 45 days (control group); 15 days of tap water followed by NaF for 30 days; and NaF for 30 days followed by 15 days of tap water. The results showed that NaF impairs open-field habituation and increases noradrenaline (NA) and serotonin (5-HT) in the striatum, hippocampus and neocortex. Dopamine (DA) increase was restricted to the striatum. Short-term NaF withdrawal did not reverse these NaF-induced changes, and both NaF treatments led to a mild fluorosis in rat incisors. No treatment effect was seen in body weight or fluid/water consumption. These results indicate that sodium fluoride induces memory impairment that outlasts short-term NaF withdrawal (2 weeks) and may be associated with NA and 5-HT increases in discrete brain regions.

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Abbreviations

DA:

Dopamine

NA:

Noradrenaline

NaF:

Sodium fluoride

DHPG:

3,4-Dihydroxyphenylglycol

DOPAC:

Dihydroxyphenylacetic acid

5-HIAA:

5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid

5-HT:

Serotonin

HVA:

Homovanilic acid

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Acknowledgements

This research was partially supported by Fundação Araucária. MP, RA and CC are recipient of CNPq fellowships; PAD and LRC are recipients of CAPES fellowships.

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Correspondence to Roberto Andreatini.

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Pereira, M., Dombrowski, P.A., Losso, E.M. et al. Memory Impairment Induced by Sodium Fluoride is Associated with Changes in Brain Monoamine Levels. Neurotox Res 19, 55–62 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12640-009-9139-5

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Keywords

  • Cognitive impairment
  • Dopamine
  • Memory
  • Monoamines
  • Open-field habituation
  • Serotonin
  • Sodium fluoride