The present paper describes four new species of virgulate xiphidiocercariae infecting the freshwater gastropod, Bithynia (Digoniostoma) pulchella (Benson, 1836) collected from Malabar, Kerala. Cercaria sp. XXII Malabar n. sp. has a spinose body and tail; four pairs of penetration glands; short, narrow oesophagus; a pair of short, unequal caeca; bicornuate excretory vesicle and 18 pairs of flame cells. Cercaria sp. XXIII Malabar n. sp. is characterized by an oval, spinose body; aspinose tail; dagger-shaped stylet; medially fused virgula; globular pharynx; short oesophagus; three pairs of penetration glands; bicornuate, ‘V’-shaped excretory bladder, and 18 pairs of flame cells. Cercaria sp. XXIV Malabar n. sp. has a spinose body and tail, medially fused virgula, muscular pharynx, short prepharynx and oesophagus; four pairs of penetration glands; bicornuate, ‘V’-shaped excretory bladder, and 12 pairs of flame cells. Cercaria sp. XXV Malabar n. sp. has a spinose body, aspinose tail, sac-like virgula; globular pharynx, narrow oesophagus; short caeca; four pairs of penetration glands; transversely elongated, bicornuate excretory bladder, and 12 pairs of flame cells. All four cercariae developed in sporocysts within the digestive gland of B. (D.) pulchella. Morphology and morphometry of the cercariae are compared with related species to establish their systematic position.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Brinesh R, Janardanan KP (2009) Two new species of xiphidiocercariae from freshwater snail Digoniostoma pulchella (Bithyniidae) in Palakkad, Kerala, India. In: Tandon V, Yadav AK, Roy B (eds) Current trends in parasitology. Panima Publishing Corporation, Bangalore, pp 169–174
Brinesh R, Janardanan KP (2014) The life-history of Pleurogenoides malampuzhensis sp. nov. (Digenea: Pleurogenidae) from amphibious and aquatic hosts in Kerala. Indian J Helminthol 88:230–236
Burns WC (1961) Six virgulate xiphidiocercariae from Oregon, including redescription of Allassogonoporus vespertilionis and Acanthatrium oregonense. J Parasitol 47(6):919–925
Etges FJ, Page CR, Bonner TP (1969) Two new species of xiphidiocercariae from Mountain Lake, Virginia. Trans Am Microsc Soc 88:84–88
Faust EC (1924) Notes on larval flukes from China, II. Studies on some larval flukes from the central and south coast provinces of China. Am J Hyg 4:241–301
Hall E, Groves AE (1963) Virgulate xiphidiocercariae from Nitocris dilatus Conrad. J Parasitol 49(2):249–263
Ismail NS, Bdair SM (1987) Four new xiphidiocercariae from Melanopsis praemorsa (L. 1758) (Thiaridae) snails in Jordon. Jpn J Parasitol 36(3):135–141
Ito J (1977) Studies on the freshwater cercariae in Leyte Island, Philippines 3. Cercariae from Thiaridae. Jpn J Exp Med 47(4):223–248
Ito J, Yasuraoka K, Santos AT, Blas BL (1977) Studies on the fresh water cercariae in Leyte Island, Philippines. 1 Collection of snails. Japan J Exp Med 47(3):141–150
Janardanan KP, Prasadan PK (1991) Studies on the life-cycle of Pleurogenoides ovatus Rao, 1977 (Trematoda: Pleurogenetinae). J Helminthol 65:43–50
Madhavi R, Dhanumkumari C, Ratnakumari TB (1987) The life-history of Pleurogenoides orientalis (Srivastava, 1934) (Trematoda: Lecithodendriidae). Parasitol Res 73(1):41–45
Mohandas A (1977) On two new species of cercariae and the histopathology of digestive gland of their host, Digoniostoma pulchella (Benson). Acta Parasitol Pol 25(2):17–23
Murty AS (1976) Studies on Indian cercariae III. Virgulate plagiorchioid cercariae. Proc Indian Acad Sci 83(1):12–17
Nasir P (1984) British freshwater cercariae. Universidad de Oriente, Cumana
Nasir P, Diaz MT (1973) Freshwater larval trematodes XXXII. Twenty new species of Venezuelan cercariae. Riv Parassit 34(1):1–44
Probert AJ (1965) Studies on larval trematodes infecting freshwater molluscs of Llangorse Lake, South Wales. Part I. The xiphidio- and microcercous cercariae. J Helminthol 39:35–52
Ramakrishna, Dey A (2007) Handbook on Indian freshwater molluscs. Zool Surv India, Kolkata, pp 1–399
Sewell RBS (1922) Cercariae indicae. Indian J Med Res 10:1–370
Subba Rao NV (1989) Handbook of freshwater molluscs of India. Zool Surv India, Calcutta, pp 1–289
The authors thank the Head, Department of Zoology, University of Calicut for providing necessary facilities. One of the authors (NKS) is grateful to the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) for financial support in the form of a Senior Research Fellowship and the study forms a part of his Ph.D. thesis.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that that there is no conflict of interest between them.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Sanil, N.K., Janardanan, K.P. Four new species of virgulate xiphidiocercariae infecting the freshwater snail, Bithynia (Digoniostoma) pulchella (Benson, 1836) in Malabar, Kerala. J Parasit Dis 43, 368–378 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12639-019-01100-y
- Bithynia (Digoniostoma) pulchella