Some epidemiological aspects of cutaneous leishmaniasis with emphasis on vectors and reservoirs of disease in the borderline of Iran and Iraq

  • Mohammad Moradi
  • Yavar Rassi
  • Mohammad Reza Abai
  • Alireza Zahraei Ramazani
  • Mehdi Mohebali
  • Sayena Rafizadeh
Original Article
  • 12 Downloads

Abstract

Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is endemic and a major health problem in 17 provinces out of 31 in Iran. This study aimed to determine vectors and reservoirs of the disease using molecular techniques in the borderline of Iran and Iraq. Sand flies and rodents were sampled using sticky paper traps and metal wire live traps, respectively, in the selected villages. About 10% of archived confirmed human positive slides was randomly checked for Leishmania by PCR–RFLP assay. The female sand flies were dissected in alcohol 96% in a sterile condition, the head and two segments of the abdomen end permanently mounted for identification and the remaining of body used for DNA extraction. The direct parasitological tests were carried out on the stained slides of rodents for Leishmania as well as PCR–RFLP assay used for molecular detection of parasite. A total of 2050 sand flies were identified comprising of Phlebotomus papatasi, Sergentomyia sintoni, Se. clydei, Se. mervynae, Se. theodori, Se. dentate and Se. iranica. The Ph. papatasi was ranked as a prevailing sand fly species. Molecular tests on female sand flies revealed infection of Ph. papatasi to Leishmania major. Direct parasitology and molecular tests confirmed of 20% infection to L. major among the sole rodents species “Tatera indica”. Due to wide dispersion of rodents colonies in the area and long favorite climate condition for sand flies, the CL foci will be provided the health risk for the religious tourists.

Keywords

Cutaneous leishmaniasis Tatera indica Phlebotomus papatasi Leishmania major PCR–RFLP Iran 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors sincerely acknowledge their gratitude to the efforts of CDC staff of the Mehran Health Center. Authors are highly thankful to Mr. Hossein Davoodi, technician of Museum of Medical Entomology (TUME), School of Public Health (SPH), Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) for assistance in archiving the sand flies slides. Thanks also to Mr. Yassin Ghasemi, technician of SPH Animal House, TUMS, for his assist in maintenance of the field caught rodents. This study was supported by Tehran University of Medical Sciences; Project No. 28137.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Copyright information

© Indian Society for Parasitology 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medical Entomology and Vector Control, School of Public HealthTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Medical Parasitology and Mycology, School of Public HealthTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  3. 3.Ministry of Health and Medical EducationNational Institute for Medical Research Development (NIMAD)TehranIran

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