Skip to main content

Patho-physiological observations in natural concurrent infections of helminth parasites of zoonotic importance in the wild rodents, Bandicota bengalensis

Abstract

Screening of 83 mature wild rodents of Bandicota bengalensis (52 male and 31 females), live trapped from premises near railway station, fish market and agricultural fields in Ludhiana district of Punjab province, India was carried out to assess the natural occurrence of helminth parasites and their potential as reservoirs of zoonoses. On necropsy, intestine of rats was found infected with adult cestode parasites of Hymenolepis diminuta and H. nana. Liver was found infected with Capillaria hepatica and Cysticercus fasciolaris. These parasites were present either alone or as concurrent infection. In overall, 68.67 % rats were found infected of which 59.65 % were infected with nematode parasite, C. hepatica and 75.44 % with cestode parasites. Grossly, pathognomonic lesions of C. hepatica and C. fasciolaris were seen clearly and microscopic changes were observed only in severely infected cases. Overall investigation on the effect of these parasitic infections on pathophysiology of the host revealed that rodents serve as reservoirs of these parasitic infections without having much pathogenic effect on their vital organs, fecundity and enzyme activities. Because of its close association with human habitations, B. bengalensis may act as an important source of zoonotic infections and thus direct or indirect contact with excrements and carcasses of this rodent species, should be avoided.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

References

  • Bradshaw J (1999) Know your enemy. Environ Health 107:126–128

    Google Scholar 

  • Castillo E, Priotto J, Ambrosio AM, Provensal MC, Pini N, Morales MA, Steinmann A, Polop JJ (2003) Commensal and wild rodents in an urban area of Argentina. Int J Biodeterior Biodegrad 52:135–141

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Choe G, Lee HS, Seo JK, Chai JY, Lee SH, Eom KS, Chi JG (1993) Hepatic capillariasis: first case report in the republic of Korea. Am J Trop Med Hyg 48:610–625

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Easterbrook JD, Kaplan JB, Vanasco NB, Reeves WK, Purcell RH, Kosoy MY, Glass GE, Watson J, Klein SL (2007) A survey of zoonotic pathogens carried by Norway rats in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. Epidemiol Infect 135:1192–1199

    CAS  Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Faust EC, Beaver PC, Jung RC (1962) Animal agents and vectors of human diseases, 2nd edn. Lea and Febiger, p 485

  • Gotardo BM, Andrade RG, Andrade ZA (2000) Hepatic pathology in Capillaria hepatica infected mice. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 33:341–346

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Hancke D, Navone GT, Suarez OV (2011) Endoparasite community of Rattus norvegicus captured in a Shantytown of Buenos Aires City, Argentina. Helminthologia 48:167–173

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hudson PJ, Dobson AP (1995) Macroparasites: Observed patterns. In: Grenfell BT, Dobson AP (eds) Ecology of infectious diseases in natural populations. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 144–176

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Humason GL (1979) Animal tissue techniques, 4th edn. W H Freeman & Co, San Francisco

    Google Scholar 

  • Juncker-Voss M, Prosl H, Lussy H, Enzenberg U, Auer H, Nowotny N (2000) Serological detection of Capillaria hepatica by indirect immunofluorescence assay. J Clin Microbiol 38:431–433

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Khatoon N, Bilqees FM, Shahwar D, Rizwana AG (2004) Histopathologic alterations associated with Syphacia sp. (Nematode) in the intestine of Nesokia indica. Turkish J Zool 28:345–351

    Google Scholar 

  • Meerburg BG (2009) Rodents are a risk factor for the spreading of pathogens on farms. Vet Microbiol 142:464–465

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Pappas PW, Barley AJ (1999) Beetle to beetle transmission and dispersal of Hymenolepis diminuta (Cestoda) eggs via the feces of Tenebrio melitor. J Parasitol 85:384–385

    CAS  Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Peters W, Pasvol G (2002) Tropical medicine and parasitology, 5th edn. Mosby, London, pp 202–207

    Google Scholar 

  • Rosa R, Rizzoli A, Ferrari N, Pugliese A (2007) Models for host parasite interactions in micromammals. In: Morand S, Krasnov BR, Poulin R (eds) Micromammals and macroparasites: from evolutionary ecology to management. Springer, Tokyo, pp 319–348

    Google Scholar 

  • Singla N, Babbar BK (2010) Rodent damage and infestation in wheat and rice crop fields: district wise analysis in Punjab State. Indian J Ecol 37:184–188

    Google Scholar 

  • Singla N, Garg M (2013) Effect of crude cottonseed oil containing gossypol on fertility of male and estrous cycle of female Bandicota bengalensis Gray and Hardwicke. J Appl Anim Res 41:156–165

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Singla N, Parshad VR (2010) Efficacy of acute and anticoagulant rodenticide baiting in sugarcane fields of Punjab, India. Int J Pest Manag 56:201–210

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Singla LD, Singla N, Parshad VR, Sandhu BS, Singh J (2003) Occurrence and pathomorphological observations on Cysticercus fasciolaris in bandicoot rats in India. In: Singleton GR, Hinds LA, Krebs CJ, Spratt DM (eds) Rats, mice and people: rodent biology and management. ACIAR, Australia, pp 57–59

    Google Scholar 

  • Singla LD, Singla N, Parshad VR, Juyal PD, Sood NK (2008a) Rodents as reservoirs of parasites in India. Integr Zool 3:21–26

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Singla N, Singla LD, Kaur R (2008b) Rodents as museum of helminth parasites of public health importance in Punjab, India. Int J Infect Dis 12:e381–e382

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Singla N, Singla LD, Gupta K, Sood NK (2013) Pathological alterations in natural cases of Capillaria hepatica infection alone and in concurrence with Cysticercus fasciolaris in Bandicota bengalensis. J Parasit Dis 37(1):16–20

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Singleton GR, Spratt DM (1986) The effects of Capillaria hepatica (Nematoda) on natality and survival to weaning in BALB/c mice. Aust J Zool 34:677–681

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Skorping A, Jensen KH (2004) Disease dynamics: all caused by males? Trends Ecol Evol 19:219–220

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Slais J (1974) Notes on the differentiation of Capillaria hepatica and visceral larva migrans. Folia Parasitol 21:95

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Soulsby EJL (1982) Helminthes, arthropods and protozoa of domesticated animals, 7th edn. Bailliere Tindall, London, p 116

    Google Scholar 

  • Stenseth NC, Herwig L, Skonhoft A, Davis SA, Pech RP, Andreassen HP, Singleton GR, Lima M, Machangu RM, Makundi RH, Zhang Z, Brown PR, Shi D, Wan X (2003) Mice, rats, and people: the bio-economics of agricultural rodent pests. Front Ecol Environ 1:367–375

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stojcevic D, Mihaljevic Z, Marinculic A (2004) Parasitological survey of rats in rural regions of Croatia. Vet Med 49:70–74

    Google Scholar 

  • Waugh CA, Lindo JF, Foronda P, Angeles-Santana M, Lorenzo-Morales J, Robinson RD (2006) Population distribution and zoonotic potential of gastrointestinal helminths of wild rats Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus from Jamaica. J Parasitol 92:1014–1018

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Wilson K, Bjørnstad ON, Dobson AP, Merler S, Poglayen G, Randolph SE, Read AF, Skorping A (2002) Heterogeneities in macroparasite infections: patterns and processes. In: Hudson PJ, Rizzoli A, Grenfell BT, Heesterbeek H, Dobson AP (eds) The ecology of wildlife disease. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 6–44

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank Professor and Head of the Department of Zoology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab for providing necessary facilities and Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi for providing financial assistance.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to N. Singla.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Singla, N., Dhar, P., Singla, L.D. et al. Patho-physiological observations in natural concurrent infections of helminth parasites of zoonotic importance in the wild rodents, Bandicota bengalensis . J Parasit Dis 40, 1435–1442 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12639-015-0709-6

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12639-015-0709-6

Keywords

  • Bandicota bengalensis
  • Concurrence
  • Enzymatic levels
  • Helminth infection
  • Vital organs