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Bioinvasion: a paradigm shift from marine to inland ecosystems


Anisakidosis is one of the most fearsome zoonotic food borne disease in aquaculture. The natural infections by anisakidoids or related variety in freshwater fish are not known, though sporadic experimental reports are available abroad (Butcher and Shamsi 2011). Invasive severity of anisakidoids in fish from Gangetic riverine ecosystems, i.e., in river Ganges at Fatehpur and Allahabad, as well as in river Yamuna at Allahabad, and molecular heterogeneity among these worms have been extensively investigated. The pathways of transmission of non-native alien species due to long distance migratory habits of Rita rita, man-made alterations including dredging in long stretches of the river bed of Ganges to facilitate ballast water transfer mechanism owing to the commercial ship movements between Haldia and Allahabad; and sudden water chemistry (salinity, hardness, alkalinity) alteration (due particularly to rainy period) oriented micro-fauna interchange are identified, and remedial measures suggested.

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Sunflower like caudal papillae


Excretory pore


Frontal lid


Single spines on head




Pre-anal papillae






Worm in situ in liver


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NJ is grateful to the University Grants Commission, New Delhi for a Post-Doctoral Fellowship. SKM is thankful to the University Grants Commission for a major research project no.F. 41-17/2012(SR).

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Correspondence to Neeshma Jaiswal.

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Jaiswal, N., Malhotra, A. & Malhotra, S.K. Bioinvasion: a paradigm shift from marine to inland ecosystems. J Parasit Dis 40, 348–358 (2016).

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  • Bioinvasion
  • Invasive species
  • Anisakid
  • Rostellascaris spinicaudatum (Malhotra and Anas 2001)
  • Polyonchobothrium armatii
  • Polyonchobothrium allahabadense
  • Biogeographic